Artigos e Teses


Vision Zero – a road safety policy innovation

Road Traffic Deaths in Brazil: Rising Trends in Pedestrian and Motorcycle Occupant Deaths

Trends in fatal motorcycle injuries in the Americas, 1998–2010

Cycling: Over 100 Free Research Papers – Taylor and Francis OnLine

Merging mobility and energy vision with hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle infrastructure integration

Analytic Modeling of Vehicle Fuel Consumption

Simple Engine Models for VII-Enabled In-Vehicle Applications

Simulation model of speed–density characteristics for mixed bicycle flow—Comparison between cellular automata model and gas dynamics model

On the way to a multi-modal energy-efficient route. Industrial Electronics Society, IECON, 2013.
Within this paper, we present a flexible and expandable routing framework capable of finding multi-modal and inter-modal energy-efficient routes incorporating, among others, transportation modes such as public transport, electric vehicles, car-sharing, bike-sharing and walking. In contrast to conventional trip planning services, the proposed framework can evaluate routes not only with respect to travel distance or travel time but also with respect to energy used. In addition, range limitation by electric vehicles is incorporated into the routing request such that range-safety can be provided.

Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems. International Journal of Control, 2013.

Hoody, goody or buddy? How travel mode affects social perceptions in urban neighbourhoods. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2013.
When travelling through a new environment people can and do make very quick judgements about the local conditions. This paper explores the idea that such judgements are affected by the travel mode they use. We hypothesise that drivers generate a more superficial impression of the things they observe than those who walk because they are exposed to less information. This prediction is based on social psychological research that demonstrates that information that becomes available in “thin slices” affects superficial judgements. A survey study (n = 644) demonstrated that perceptions of a less affluent area are indeed negatively related to more driving and positively related to more walking, but only for those who do not live there. Perceptions of a neighbouring affluent area are positively related to more driving. Two experimental studies (n = 245 and n = 91) demonstrated that explicit (but not implicit) attitudes towards a group of young people in an ambiguous social situation are more negative when they are viewed from the perspective of a car user in particular in relation to a pedestrian perspective. These findings suggest that mode use may affect communities by influencing social judgements.

INDIAN TWO WHEELER MARKET: RURAL INDIA SHINES A CASE STUDY ON THE SALES OF TWO WHEELERS IN RURAL INDIAN . Masters International Journal of Management Research and Development, 2013.
The Indian rural market of two-wheeler offers plethora of opportunities to manufactures and service providers. The overall two-wheeler market in India continues to be under-penetrated, and most of the equipment manufacturers have also maintained focus on expanding sales-cum-service outlets, particularly in semi-urban and rural areas and setting up satellite dealerships and service facilities in the neighboring smaller towns. This paper aims at an empirical research of rural customers and employment opportunity generated to local people providing services as mechanic of two-wheelers in rural India. The current rural market accounts for around 45% of the total two-wheeler sales by volume in India.

Methodology for optimizing the number of electric vehicles deployed under a smart grid. Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013.
One of the major sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG) is the transportation sector. Electrification of transportation is generally considered as the optimal solution for decreasing GHG emissions of the transportation sector. Although there are various obstacles for the deployment of electric vehicles (EVs), unavailability of charging infrastructure is the biggest obstacle. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the estimation of the optimal number of EVs that can be deployed under a given smart grid. Monte-carlo simulations and linear programming are used for the estimation. The methodology is applied to calculate the optimal number of EVs that can be deployed under a high-rise building in Singapore. The method is validated using load demand data of 5 years, load model of EVs and EV load scheduling. The cost-benefit analysis for the installation of charging stations in buildings is also discussed by varying different parameters.

Analyzing road surface conditions, collision time, and road structural factors associated with bicycle collisions from 2000 to 2010 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Journal of Transport & Health, 2014.
Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the likelihood of bicycle collisions and time of day, traffic volume, road surface conditions, legal speed limit, and weather. Method. Data from the Saskatchewan Traffic Accident Information System (TAIS) was used. Descriptive statistics, mapping and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine factors associated with bicycle collisions. Results. Legal speed limits greater than 70 km/h were shown to be more dangerous when compared to legal speed limits less than 50 km/h, which showed an 84% reduced probability of collisions (OR=0.26, CI: 0.11 to 0.54). Compared to morning cycling, night time cycling was associated with 2.13 times the risk of collision (95% CI: 1.28 to 3.82). Hazardous road surface conditions, such as snow and ice, increased the likelihood of a collision by 12.13 times (95% CI: 8.13 to 19.98). Contrary to previous research, our analysis showed that collisions do not occur more frequently at intersections. Conclusion. The results from this study demonstrated that road conditions and time of day play an important role in cycling collisions. Transportation and public health policies such as regular maintenance of roadways for cyclists and more bicycle scale street lights could address these factors at relatively low cost.

Strength Design of Lightweight Composite Bicycle Frame. Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, 2013.
Strength design for a lightweight bicycle frame made of carbon/epoxy composite laminates was studied using Tsai-Wu’s failure criterion. For the design of bicycle frames, reducing the weight of the frame is of great importance. Furthermore, the frame should satisfy the required strength under specific loading cases. In accordance with the European EN 14764 standard for bicycle frames, three loading cases-pedaling, vertical, and level loadings-were investigated in this study. Because of the anisotropic characteristics of composite materials, it is important to decide the appropriate stacking sequence and the number of layers to be used in the composite bicycle frame. From finite element analysis results, the most suitable stacking sequence of the fiber orientation and the number of layers were determined. The stacking sequences of , , , , (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) were used in the analysis. The results indicated that the lay-up model was suitable for a composite bicycle frame. Furthermore, the weakest point and layer were investigated.

Prevalence of Carrying Multiple Pillion Riders on the Route to School. Advanced Engineering Forum , 2013.
A cross-sectional observation surveys was carried out among 6 to 12 years old child pillion riders travelling to and from schools by motorcycle. The study focused on prevalence of multiple child pillion riders, to determine the relationship between child pillion riders safety helmet compliance and their seating position and foot peg utilization. A total of 701 riders and 913 school children were observed. Riders safety helmet use rate was significantly higher (66.8%) than as compared to child pillion rider helmet use (14.7%) with OR=11.7 (95%CI 9.2-14.9). It was observed that 29.1% riders were carrying more than one child pillion riders; with female rider are more likely to carry more than one pillion rider (OR=1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.2). Observation on utilization of foot peg showed that back motorcycle pillion rider (BP) were more likely to use foot peg as compared to middle motorcycle pillion rider (MP) (OR=11.7, 95%CI 7.8, 17.5). Safety helmet use by child pillion rider on the route to school is generally low. Furthermore, there was a significant difference for child pillion rider safety helmet use compliance according to seating position. Children who were seated in the middle are less likely to use safety helmet. Rear child pillion riders had higher chance to utilize motorcycle foot peg. To increase the prevalence of helmet use and safety of children, there is a need for public awareness campaigns on the safety benefits of safety helmets use among school children and ergonomically designed motorcycle while riding.

Ban on Commercial Motorcycle Operations in Benin City, Nigeria: An Appraisal of the Benefits and Business Opportunities. Developing Country Studies, 2013.
This paper appraises the socio-economic implications of the ban on commercial motorcycle operations (CMOs) in Benin City, Nigeria. Deriving from the literature review, the paper posits that although CMOs offered a number of benefits to the users, but that they also had negative effects which include the increase in criminal activities such as armed robbery and kidnapping, and phenomenal rise in the number of motor traffic accidents, many of them fatal. Besides, there were strong indications that insurgents were planning to breach the security of the State by leveraging on the activities of CMOs. Therefore to checkmate the security threat and guarantee the safety and security of the populace, the state government banned CMOs in Benin City. The ban subjected many commuters to immense hardship but it has some benefits and it also created potential business opportunities which the paper identifies.

A Strategy of Fail Safety depends on Electric Motorcycle SOC Condition. Advanced Science and Technology Letters, 2013.
In this paper, we proposed the method of fail safety as SOC states. We have used a reliable model for electric motorcycle system that is modeled by a method of MBD(Model Based Design) using ASM(Automotive Simulation System) program. The Li-Ion battery used in this model could have a serious problem if it discharges to 10% of SOC(State of Charge). So, the supply of power would be limited before SOC reaches minimum line. When it comes to happen, a logic to control the power of electric motorcycle effects to driving distance and time. To optimize control logic, a various type of control logic has been simulated. Turns out, we could propose proper fail safety logic to be met not only better driving distance and time but also better dynamic characteristics.

Spatial Econometric Analysis of Automobile and Motorcycle Traffic on Indonesian National Roads : Is It Local or Beyond City Boundaries?. 2013.
This paper investigates the spatial dimensions of automobile and motorcycle trips on national roads between neighboring cities in Indonesia, using spatial econometric models. Vehicle trips are measured in terms of vehicle kilo- meters traveled (VKT) for both types of vehicles. The study finds that motorcycle trips are characteristically local because there is no sign of a spatial correlation with neighboring cities for such trips; by contrast, automobile trips are often made across city boundaries, although the models demonstrate only small spatial correlations among neighboring cities for automobile trips. The models also indicate that road capacity, gasoline prices, income in the region, population and worker density, city size, and number of public buses, have significant effects on VKT. The results suggest that in general, urban transportation policies for national roads could be less complex because local solutions may be more effective in solving the traffic problems of individual Indonesian cities.

Automotive business development in Indonesia is now characterized by wide variety competition which impact on consumer behavior changes in determining purchasing decisions ranging from product quality, product design structure, and promotions that offered towards consumer, even with big brand names attached to the product. In the conditions of strict competition on motorcycle dealer’s market, Tunggul Sakti Sejahtera Semarang dealer’s are trying to do their business policies to achieve the desired market share. Based on Honda motorcycle sales data on Tunggul Sakti Sejahtera Semarang dealer, there are sales not in accordance with the specified target. This study aims to determine how far the influence of brand equity and promotion of their Honda motorcycle purchasing decisions on the Tunggul Sakti Sejahtera Semarang dealer. This type of research is explanatory research using primary data through questionnaires and secondary data from website in the form of a percentage of sales of Honda motorcycles with other motorcycle brands. The population of research is consumers who make purchases Honda motorcycle at Tunggul Sakti Sejahtera Semarang dealer in 2008-2012 with a sample of 98 respondents from a population of 5356 people using purposive sampling technique. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The measurement using the Likert scale. Data analysis method used is descriptive qualitative that use validity and reliability test, Cross Tabulation Analysis (Crosstab), Coefficient of Correlation, Simple Linear Regression, Multiple Linear Regression, Coefficient of Determination, t-test and F-test with the SPSS software program. From the analysis found that the categories of the brand equity of 68.4 per cent expressed good. In categories of promotion, 56.1 percent known good states. variable Brand equity affect purchase decisions on the of 34.8 percent. Variable Promotion influence the purchasing decisions of 29.7 percent. Brand equity and promotion variables influence the purchasing decisions of 4.23 percent. So it can be concluded the better brand equity and promotion is expected to increase consumer purchasing decisions. The suggestions can be given in this study is, Tunggul Sakti Sejahtera Semarang need to increase promotional activities with sponsorship of musical events, sports events, and advertise through the local television media companies.

Detecting motorcycle rider local physical fatigue and discomfort using surface electromyography and seat interface pressure. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2014.
Whilst motorcycling is an activity of pleasure in most parts of the world, in India it is a regular mode of commuting. Incidence of fatigue is substantially higher among motorcycle riders than drivers of other modes of transport. The objective of this study was to detect physical fatigue due to motorcycle riding for an hour using surface electromyography (sEMG) and seat interface pressure. Twenty healthy male participants performed 60 min of motorcycle riding in a low traffic density environment. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from extensor carpi radialis (ECR), biceps brachii (BB), trapezius medial (TM), sternocleldomastoid (S) latissimus dorsi (LD) and erector spinae (ES) muscle groups. Interface seat pressure distribution was monitored using a pressure mapping system. Results showed that participants have significant (p < 0.05) physical fatigue in TM, LD and ES muscle groups during 60 min of motorcycle riding. Seat pressure distribution was found to be non-uniform during the course of motorcycling. Results suggest that the impact on local physical fatigue and seat discomfort are probably due to static seating demand and prolonged sitting posture balance required to ride the motorcycle for an hour. Driving Cycle for Motorcycle Using Micro-Simulation Model. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2012.
Driving cycle of vehicle has been used in emission estimation and fuel consumption study. Existing method of data collection using car chasing technique is expensive. The technique using micro simulation approach is cheaper and fast to derive the driving cycle. In this paper a traffic simulation model Driving Cycle Micro-Simulation Model for Motor-cycle has been developed. The issue of lateral and longitudinal movement aspect in motorcycle driving has been exam-ined in the model. Parameters to cover such movement have been built in the model and applied on a stretch in Edin-burgh city of Scotland. Results from model have been both calibrated and validated. The results show that Driving Cy-cle Micro-Simulation Model for Motorcycle gives better representation of driving cycle and it can be used to understand the effect of driving modes on emission for better understanding of vehicular emission control.

Modeling and simulation of motorcycle traffic flow. IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004.
Mixed-traffic that contains motorized and nonmotorized vehicles becomes more common in urban areas. Compare with motorized traffic, nonmotorized traffic flow theory isn’t mature enough. In this study, a motorcycle traffic flow model is proposed. It contains longitudinal and lateral movement models. The motorcycle traffic flow is influenced by driver characteristics, vehicle interactions, and the external environment all of which the proposed model would take into account. Finally, a motorcycle traffic flow simulation is presented. The simulation result indicates that the proposed model is reasonable, and it can reflect some motorcycle traffic flow phenomena. The behaviors of bicycles and pedestrians are similar to motorcycles; the result of this study could be the basis of bicycle or pedestrian flow model.

Microscopic Simulation for Modeling Effects of Motorcycles on Traffic Operations at Signalized Intersection. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2010.
This paper investigates the effects of motorcycles on traffic operations at signalized intersections. Field surveys are conducted to study the effects of motorcycles on other traffic by examining discharge headway. It is found that the effects of motorcycles may be measured in terms of an increase in the start-up lost time of signal phase. Presence of motorcycles does not affect the saturation headway of traffic. A microscopic traffic simulation is developed so that effects of motorcycles can be taken into account in the planning and management of urban streets. It is found that our software can replicate the discharge headway as observed from the actual data.

On-Road Approaching Motorcycle Detection and Tracking Techniques: A Survey.
Driver Assistance System (DAS) plays a vital and promising role in most intelligent vehicles technologies by alerting the motorists about any possible collision. In such systems robustness, reliability and real-time detection are critical. This paper focused on on-road detection of approaching motorcycles, where sensor is preferably attached on the rear side of vehicle. More attention is given to the applicability of methods and technologies on motorcycle detection and recognition, as motorcycles are smaller and harder to be noticed by vehicle driver. First we discuss the problem of on-road motorcycle detection using different sensors followed by review of motorcycle detection research. Then, we discuss types of sensor to set the stage for vision-based motorcycle detection. Methods used for hypothesis generation (HG) and hypothesis verification (HV) are mentioned before the integration of detection and tracking systems. Finally, we present a critical overview of the methods discussed and assess the potential of these methodologies for the future research and applications.

Heat transfer simulation of motorcycle fins under varying velocity using CFD method. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2013.
Motorcycle engine releases heat to the atmosphere through the mode of force convection. To solve this, fins are provided on the outer of the cylinder. The heat transfer rate is defined depending on the velocity of vehicle, fin geometry and the ambient temperature. Increasing the temperature difference between the object and the environment, increasing the convection heat transfer coefficient, or increasing the surface area of the object increases the heat transfer. Many experimental methods are available in literature to analyze the effect of these factors on the heat transfer rate. However, CFD analysis will be use to simulate the heat transfer of the engine block. ANSYS software is selected to run the simulation.

Gender differences in road traffic injury rate using time travelled as a measure of exposure. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2013.
There is no consensus on whether the risk of road traffic injury is higher among men or among women. Comparison between studies is difficult mainly due to the different exposure measures used to estimate the risk. The measures of exposure to the risk of road traffic injury should be people’s mobility measures, but frequently authors use other measures such population or vehicles mobility. We compare road traffic injury risk in men and women, by age, mode of transport and severity, using the time people spend travelling as the exposure measure, in Catalonia for the period 2004-2008. This is a cross-sectional study including all residents aged over 3 years. The road traffic injury rate was calculated using the number of people injured, from the Register of Accidents and Victims of the National Traffic Authority as numerator, and the person-hours travelled, from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey carried out by the Catalan regional government, as denominator. Sex and age specific rates by mode of transport and severity were calculated, and Poisson regression models were fitted. Among child pedestrians and young drivers, males present higher risk of slight and severe injury, and in the oldest groups women present higher risk. The death rate is always higher in men. There exists interaction between sex and age in road traffic injury risk. Therefore, injury risk is higher among men in some age groups, and among women in other groups, but these age groups vary depending on mode of transport and severity.

A Cost-Effective Sideslip Estimation Method Using Velocity Measurements from Two GPS Receivers, IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, 2013.
This paper demonstrates that the vehicle sideslip can be estimated through the kinematic relationship of velocity measurements from two low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. To compensate for the low update rate of lowcost GPS receivers, acceleration/angular rate measurements from an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) are merged with the GPS measurements using an Extended Kalman Filter. Two technical challenges were addressed: (i) unsynchronized updates of the two GPS receivers and (ii) significant delays in GPS velocity measurement. A stochastic observability analysis reveals that the proposed method guarantees the observability when a vehicle has non-zero yaw rates. Experimental verification shows that the vehicle sideslip is estimated regardless of surface friction levels under several maneuvers.

Durability Analysis of Motorcycle Frame Using Fatigue I-Kaz Technique. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013.
This paper presents durability analysis using a new statistical-based method, called the Fatigue Integrated Kurtosis-based Algorithm for Z-notch filter (Fatigue I-kaz) technique. This method provides a three dimensional graphical representation of the data distribution of the signal at three different frequency range in order to measure the degree of data scattering. For validation, three road surfaces were used for data collection purposes. An experiment has been performed on the motorcycle frame. In this study, the strain signals were collected based on three different road surfaces. The strain gauges were fixed on the motorcycle frame to measure the variable strain amplitude loadings imposed. The strain signals were then analysed using Fatigue I-kaz coefficient. Residential road surfaces give a higher Fatigue I-kaz coefficient, f than campus and off road surfaces which is 0.0120 which is 0.0079 and 0.0067

Comparative Analysis of Pedestrian, Bicycle and Car Traffic Moving in Circuits. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013.
In this study, we provide results of controlled experiments of single file bicycle movement on a circuit. We compare the fundamental characteristics of bicycle traffic with that of car and pedestrian traffic, which have been studied extensively in previous research under similar condition. From the comparison of the time-space diagrams of these three one-dimensional traffic flows, different states of motion (free flow state, the jammed state and stop-and-go waves) can be observed in all these systems. The fundamental diagrams are compared in two different ways. Without considering the size and free velocity of these three kinds of objects, the data points occupy different density ranges in the diagram. However, when we use the concept of scaling by considering the free velocity and size of the moving objects, the fundamental diagrams show the same structure and values. This implies that the transport properties in these three different types of single file traffic flow could be unified in a certain range by simple scaling. These results provide insights into the dynamics but also may be relevant for the improvement of mixed traffic systems.

Investigating the Relative Influence of Various Factors in Bicycle Mode Choice. 2nd Conference of Transportation Research Group of India (2nd CTRG), 2013.
Rapid urbanization is becoming a common trend in developing countries like India, resulting in a consequence of transport in-equilibrium in urban areas. Pendakur (2002) mentioned that in 1995, 45% of the global population lived in urban areas, but by 2020, this is expected to increase to about 66%, which clearly warns us about the forthcoming urban transport crisis situation in urban areas. Padam and Singh (2001) mentioned that as the cities grow larger, the travel distances (trip lengths) and therefore, the travel costs increase geometrically. Which means the distance which was walk-able or bicycle-able, has now become necessary to use vehicles. Although mobility and accessibility issues are addressed in urban areas still problems such as delay, congestion, accidents, air and noise pollution, energy wastage, etc are ever increasing due to rapid urbanization. But inadequate passenger or public transport especially in developing countries like India are forcing the high income group of people to choose personalized modes over public transport. People belonging to middle income group are mostly choosing intermediate or Para-transit such as autos, which are adding massively to the congestion and all other ill effects of transport. This leaves the lower income group of people or captive riders to suffer, which forces the researchers in this field to take a closer look in the urbanization crisis and problems. As reported by Wilbur Smith (2008) the future mode share in different cities are presented here, which shows a significant decrease in public transport and a very high increase in private mode share for all city categories and very high share of NMT in small sized cities, which shows the main importance of improving NMT infrastructure in small sized cities.

Effect of Bicycle Friendly Roadway Infrastructure on Bicycling Activities in Urban India. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013.
Bicycling is considered as one of the most efficient mode of sustainable transportation for shorter commutes. European countries such as the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany are the global leaders in this context with their high level of bicycling for commute. They achieved it by providing safe and efficient bicycling infrastructure over the years. On the contrary, modal share of bicycling is declining year by year in India. Although it is expected to be attractive option for short commute trips in India due to its extremely low cost of operation, it is not at all an attractive mode among commuter belonging to high and middle income group. Bicycle users in India are predominantly captive users like lower income group people and students. In order to promote bicycling, development/improvement of bicycle friendly infrastructure is highly essential. For a developing country like India, which depends heavily on imported fossil fuels for transportation, promoting bicycling for shorter commutes will have long term influence on its economy as well. This paper aims to find the effect of some of the bicycle friendly infrastructures on urban Indian bicycling from the user perspective. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four major Indian cities to collect data for this study. Later ordinal logistic regression model was used to form a public opinion model to rank some bicycle friendly infrastructures and policies based on public opinion using the data collected during the survey. Dedicated bicycle lane was found to be the most preferred bicycle friendly infrastructures based on the public opinion and whereas facility to carry bicycle on public transportation was found to be the least preferred one. The findings from this study could be used by various policy makers and stakeholders to improve bicycling in their region.

Health Campaigns as Engaged Pedagogy: Considering a Motorcycle Safety Campaign as Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 2013.
This article argues that teaching health campaigns from an engaged pedagogy perspective is beneficial for students, instruc- tors, and communities. This argument is supported by a teaching and learning perspective using a motorcycle safety campaign as an exemplar. Retrospective interviews were conducted with stu- dents who participated in a graduate-level, two-course engaged pedagogy sequence. Subsequently, the instructor’s perspective is used to describe challenges and offer suggestions for teaching health campaigns applying the scholarship of teaching and learning perspective. The analysis illustrates the benefits gained by incorporating a real-time health campaign into the curric- ulum, such as accomplishing specific course objectives while working on a bona fide safety campaign, and achieving a high level of student satisfaction. Ultimately, instructors are encour- aged to incorporate this engaged approach when designing and teaching health campaign courses.

The Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and application amongst novice riders in Australia. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2014.
The Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) was developed to measure behavioral factors influencing motorcyclists’ crash risk including errors and violations as well as the use of motorcycle safety equipment via self-report. The aims of the present study were to (1) examine the previously examined psychometric properties of the MRBQ including the factor structure, internal consistency, and predictive validity in terms of self-reported crashes amongst experienced riders in the UK and Turkey; (2) examine the psychometric properties of the MRBQ not yet examined, including its stability, content validity, and predictive validity in terms of police-recorded crashes and offences as well as self-reported near crashes and crashes; and (3) assess the applicability of the MRBQ to a population of novice riders in Australia, to whom the MRBQ has not been applied to date. Novice riders (N = 1305) in the state of Victoria, Australia participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the present data did not fit with the previously found factor models in experienced riders in the UK and Turkey. Principal axis factoring was performed to respecify the MRBQ factor model amongst novice riders and revealed four scales: errors; speed violations; stunts; and protective gear. The insufficient internal consistency, stability, content and predictive validity demonstrated by the MRBQ in the present study and some inconsistencies amongst the three MRBQ studies suggest that the development and refinement of the MRBQ items are required before wider use of the MRBQ instrument, especially amongst novice riders. Possible causes of the limited reliability and validity of the current MRBQ are discussed to inform further development and refinement of the items, thereby making the MRBQ more useful in future research to understand and evaluate riders’ behaviors.

An Adaptive Bicycle Detection Algorithm Based on Multi-Gaussian Models. Journal of Computational Information Systems, 2013.
It is critical to detect bicycles in the intelligent traffic surveillance systems as they have become one of the major reasons of accidents in China. This paper proposes a method with two stages, including learning stage and detection stage, to detect bicycles. In the learning stage, for each pixel of the concerned image, two groups of Multi-Gaussian models are established to reflect the object shape and motion distributions and the classification thresholds are obtained following the minimum classification error principle. In the detection stage, a cascade classifier is implemented to classify bicycles in each pixel which is covered by the detected objects, then the majority rule is used twice to give the final detection results. One is used to fuse all the classification results of the pixels covered by the detected objects, the other one is used to fuse the results of multiple frames. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for different scenes.

Universal flow-density relation of single- le bicycle, pedestrian and car motion. 2013.


Supporting large-scale travel surveys with smartphones – A practical approach. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 2013.
Collection of travel data is a key task of transportation modeling. Data collection is currently based on costly and time-intensive questionnaires, and can thus only provide limited cross-sectional coverage and inadequate updates. There is an urgent need for technologically supported travel data acquisition tools. We present a novel approach for supporting travel surveys using data collected with smartphones. Individual trips of the person carrying the phone are automatically reconstructed and trip legs are classified into one of eight different modes of transport. This task is performed by an ensemble of probabilistic classifiers combined with a Discrete Hidden Markov Model (DHMM). Classification is based on features extracted from the motion trajectory recorded by the smartphone’s positioning system and signals of the embedded accelerometer. Our approach can cope with GPS signal losses by including positioning data obtained from the mobile phone cell network, and relies solely on accelerometer features when the trajectory cannot be reconstructed with sufficient accuracy. To train and evaluate the models, 355 h of probe travel data were collected in the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria by 15 volunteers over a period of 2 months. Distinguishing eight different transportation modes, the classification results range from 65% (train, subway) to 95% (bicycle). The increasing popularity of smartphones gives the proposed method the potential to be used on a wide-spread basis and can complement existing travel survey methods.

Too drunk to ride? Insights on cyclists’ behaviour and attitudes towards alcohol, drugs and cycling . 2013.
The negative impacts of alcohol and recreational/illegal drugs on cyclist safety are well established. Like all road users, cyclists’ psychomotor and cognitive skills are impeded when intoxicated, however, little is known about attitudes and use of alcohol and drugs among cyclists in Australia. We conducted an in-depth study of cyclists who had crashed and presented to two hospitals in Melbourne, Victoria (n=158). In this analysis, we investigated the prevalence and level of intoxication among cyclists. We also examined attitudes towards cycling when intoxicated or after having consumed recreational/illegal drugs. Clinical tests for alcohol were conducted on 23 cyclists (22 serum levels, 1 breathalyser). None of the participants were tested for recreational/illicit drug use. Of those tested, the majority of cyclists recorded zero levels of alcohol (73.9%); while 3 riders recorded a level of 0.05 or higher (2 records were missing). Participants were asked whether alcohol use would negatively affect riding skills and what level of alcohol was acceptable to ride a bicycle. The majority of participants agreed that cycling riding skills would be negatively affected by both alcohol (97.4%) and recreational/illegal drug (89%) use. The majority of cyclists (95.4%) believed an acceptable alcohol level to ride a bike was either no alcohol (40.4%) or low alcohol (under 0.05: 52.2%). However, 9% reported that they would ride a bike home if impaired by alcohol. Results highlight the need for more data be collected on alcohol and drug use amongst cyclists and that road safety campaigns that address substance use may need to target all road users, including cyclists.

Development of Causal Model of Four Parameters upon Statistical and Mathematical Analysis and Management. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013.
This study aims to probe into causal relationship among serious leisure traits, leisure internal motivation, leisure benefits and sense of happiness and further examines the moderating roles of leisure internal motivation and leisure benefits. Research design is based on questionnaire survey. Bicyclists of 2009 Giant Cup, 2009 Mountain Tour and Sea Appreciation, Challenge 100 cycling in Miaoli and 2009 Taichung 100K Cycling Race are treated as the subjects. The researcher conducts investigation on the fields by convenience sampling and acquires 500 valid samples. According to research findings, serious leisure traits positively influence leisure internal motivation, leisure benefits and sense of happiness. Leisure internal motivation positively influences leisure benefits and sense of happiness. Leisure benefits positively influence sense of happiness. Leisure internal motivation and leisure benefits play partial moderating roles between serious leisure traits and sense of happiness. Overall explained power of serious leisure traits, leisure internal motivation and leisure benefits on sense of happiness is 88%. Research findings aim to serve as reference for governmental departments in the promotion of bicycle activities, private bicycle groups or firms strategies of bicycle activities and market expansion and future academic studies.

Due to the advantages offered by agglomerations, human activities have always concentrated, and cities have become multifunctional places: living places, places where goods and services are produced, culture and socialisation places. Nowadays however, the negative effects produced by agglomerations often get to overbalance the positive effects and to repel people and activities. Agglomerations often become impersonal and unfamiliar. They are no longer a “lived space” and people can hardly wait to “evade” at least during the weekend. Among the development factors for which a city should be attractive, Qualified Workforce (QwF) has become the main one, due to the knowledge society we live in. In the Western societies, the QwF has met its basic, material needs, also aiming to meet the others that are linked to the Quality of Life (QoL) (safety, health, mobility, leisure, etc.). That is why the attractiveness for the development factors is more and more linked to the QoL that a city offers, the bicycle being able to bring a large number of answers in this direction. By means of this study, we will try to show the influence that the bicycle has on the urban attractiveness factors. We will find out that the bicycle influences them all and, moreover, without producing any drawbacks in other domains. It exercises however the most powerful effects on two of the most important soft factors of attractiveness, namely QoL and image. By noting the increasing importance of the soft factors in relation to the hard factors, we will be able to sustain the opportunity of investing in facilities for bicycle. Moreover, we will show that a city which aims to remain competitive on the global market of the development factors has no more choices and has to become bicycle-friendly.

Kinematic Analysis of an 8-Speed Bicycle Transmission Hub. Applied Science and Precision Engineering Innovation, 2013.
A transmission hub is a speed changing mechanism which is an important device in the transmission system of bicycles. This paper presents the kinematic analysis of an 8-speed bicycle transmission hub by using the fundamental circuit method. First, a distributed-flow type planetary gear mechanism, which consists of two parallel-connected transmission units and one differential unit, and the corresponding clutch sequence table of an 8-speed transmission hub are introduced. Based on the fundamental circuits, four kinematic equations of the transmission hub are derived. Then, the speed ratio of each speed is formulated, which is a function of gear ratios of external and internal gear pairs. By submitting the numbers of gear teeth into these formulas, the value of speed ratio at each speed can be calculated. Finally, the power-flow diagrams at related speeds are presented to illustrate the power-flow paths of the transmission hub.

The Impact of Bicycle Suspension on Pedaling Forces. Applied Science and Precision Engineering Innovation, 2013.
Front and/or rear suspensions of bicycles become popular for the purpose of riding comfort especially for mountain bicycle. Suspension system include damper for shock absorbing and spring for rebounding. Therefore suspension systems would increase bicycle riding effort since damper dissipates energy. ADAMS®/LifeMOD® are proposed in this research to establish a Bicycle-Human Integrated Multibody Dynamic Model to investigate the impact of bicycle suspensions on cyclists leg muscle forces under various pedaling conditions. Muscles compared include adductor magnus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and semitendinosus. Pedaling conditions include riding on flat road, over a road bump, and climbing slope. The results indicate that suspension system increases the pedaling forces of vastus lateralis and semitendinosus. However suspension system decreases the pedaling forces of adductor magnus and rectus femoris. The integrated model built in this research may be used as reference for designing bicycle suspension systems. In addition, the results of this study can be used as the basis of leg weight training for long-distance off-road cyclists to strengthen certain muscles.

Dream Paths of Urban Sustainability, Intent to Implementation. Universal Journal of Applied Science, 2014.
This paper provides a generic and useable transition path from sustainability intent to sustainability implementation, using a North Queensland, Australia, case study. The inseparable nature of land use, nodal and transport corridor densities; local needs-meeting and consequent urban travel to and through activity centres provides a coherent intellectual framework, implementation rationale and methodology to achieve greater sustainability. This paper uses urban travel research and a 90-person one-day Paths to sustainability workshop held at James Cook University, Townsville in 2008. Aligned with other like current publications, it is hoped this paper helps urban planning decision-makers head more successfully and deeply into sustainable planning directions within an intellectual framework of applied science.

A Study on Non-Motorised (NMT) Activities for Urban Environment. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2014.
This study aim to define strategies for influencing of shifting from motorised to non-motorised modes of transport in the framework of a sustainable urban transport. A growing number of Asian cities have high numbers of private car making up the majority of traffic. This has resulted in the negative impact of traffic congestion, road safety, air pollution and climate change. Many policy measures to reduce these problems have been implemented, such as widening the roads, limiting speed, upgrading the motorcycle lanes and upgrading public transport, but there are no measures and encouragement for the provision of non-motorised modes of transport (cycling and walking) in Malaysia. These modes of transport are seldom acknowledged by planners and policymakers. This study suggests areas for reforming the traditional views of highway provision and touches upon the framework for cycling and walking strategies.

Comparison of Motorists’ and Cyclists’ perception of bicycle safety. 36th Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF) Annual Conference, 2013.
Increasing the modal share of public transit systems has become paramount in aiding the reduction on the excessive reliance of personal motor vehicles. More so the need to increase the share of active modes of transport such as the use of bicycles, therefore there is an ever increasing need to use bicycles both on shared pedestrian paths and on-road cycling. The risk to cyclist, or consequently the perception of the risk from both cyclists and motorists alike, is an important factor to increase the use of this transport mode. This paper investigates perception of bicycle safety by conducting a survey and analysing the survey data to understand how participants with different backgrounds perceive the risks of cycling for transport. Contributing factors to people’s perception of bicycle safety were identified and compared across different road user groups, based upon which recommendations were made on how to improve bicycle safety.

Visual defects and commercial motorcycle accidents in south eastern Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2013.
BACKGROUND: Commercial motorcyclists are a regular part of our highways, especially with the decrease in the number and quality of good roads. This study is aimed at determining the role of vision if any in the increasing number of road traffic accidents (RTA’s) among commercial motorcyclists in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. METHOD: A cross sectional survey with a multi stage random sampling design was used to select the 615 commercial motorcyclists in Enugu metropolis enrolled in the study. RESULT: Out of the 615 motorcyclists, seven (1.14% +/- 0.70%) motorcyclists had visual impairment (< 6/18-3/60). Visual field defect was noted in 2.3% +/- 0.98% while 2.6% +/- 0.98% had colour vision defect. The prevalence of road traffic accident (RTA) was 57.7%. Visual impairment was not significantly associated with RTA (P = 0.333) while visual field defect (P = 0.000), and colour vision defect (P = 0.003) were positively associated with RTA. Inexperienced riders had significantly more RTAs than their counterparts (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION; Visual field defect, and colour vision defect were significantly associated with RTA but this finding is in the backdrop of poor training, and inexperience which also significantly affected RTA among the predominantly young riders involved in RTA. Model for Reducing Traffic Volume: Case Study of Belgrade, Serbia. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2013.
Daily congestion on transportation networks is the one of the biggest problems that city authorities face. Different strategies for transportation-demand management have been developed with the aim to decrease existing negative traffic impacts. Available strategies are based on the use of accessible transportation infrastructure and have their own characteristics. In accordance with these specific characteristics, each strategy is more or less suitable for a particular transportation network. In this paper, the writers develop a model for the best strategy selection from transportation and drivers’ point-of-view. The model is based on the analytical network process, i.e., on the combination with the benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks (BOCR) merit approach, with consideration of BOCR. The approach addresses problems regarding the network structure, whereby the various criteria are relevant for the considered problem. The proposed model is applied and tested on real data collected in Belgrade, Serbia.

Analysing the development of Industrial Symbiosis in a motorcycle local industrial network: the role of contextual factors. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2013.
Drawing on the principles of Industrial Ecology, Industrial Symbiosis (IS) engages communities of co-located companies in a cooperative management of material and energy flows. IS includes the tools and applied solutions to reduce inefficiencies and promote the eco-innovation of entire production systems. Contextual factors may affect both the nature of the synergistic solutions that characterise the IS and its potential implementation. If the beginnings of IS are pre-existing organisational relationships, such as industrial networks or clusters, further mechanisms, related to the dynamics of change within the systems, should be taken into account. The article analyses these issues in a local industrial network, through a case study based on a large firm and 18 small medium enterprises (SMEs) working in the motorcycle industry. The analytical model considers the factors that may affect the development of IS. The results indicate the potentials of IS in such a specific context; they also highlight that SMEs provide the technological and organisational basis that enable a step-by-step implementation of the proposed solutions.

Factors Contributing to Crash Involvement of Unlicensed Motorcycle Riders in Malaysia, Jurnal Teknologi, 2013.
Despite the various interventions carried out to reduce the number of road crashes and injuries involving motorcycle riders, unlicensed riding remains a growing road safety concern in Malaysia. Thus, the current study was embarked upon to identify the general trends and to assess the factors contributing to the high involvement of unlicensed motorcycle riders who were fatally injured in road crashes. The results indicated that about one-fifth of the total casualties involved were unlicensed motorcycle riders and the proportion would be higher if the statistics of the unknown cases was included. The results also revealed that, when compared with licensed motorcycle riders, relatively high proportion of unlicensed motorcycle riders were young (69%), did not wear safety helmets (33%), involved in crashes which occurred at night (39%) and in rural areas (79.1%). These findings suggested that unlicensed motorcycle riders were predominantly young which can be considered as novice and inexperienced, and were more likely to engage in risky riding behaviors. Potential intervention activities and future research are discussed as well

Reduction of Private Vehicle Usage in Response to Fuel Price Rise: A Comparison between Automobile Drivers and Motorcycle Riders, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013.
This study developed a model to describe the relationship between the agents of socialization, personal norm of using environment friendly traveling mode, and private vehicle usage reduction in response to fuel price rise. An empirical study was conducted by using the measurement data collected from 209 participant automobile drivers and 565 participant motorcycle riders. The study results show that the models for automobile drivers and motorcycle riders are different and should be estimated individually. The private vehicle usage reduction is found to be significantly determined by personal norm for both automobile drivers and motorcycle riders, and agents of socialization have different influences on personal norm for automobile drivers and motorcycle riders. Automobile drivers consistently have higher willingness than motorcycle riders to reduce their private vehicle usage reduction on the trips for all activities in response to fuel price rise. Some suggestions were derived from study results to reduce the vehicle usage for automobile drivers and motorcycle riders.

Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crashes: implications for rider training and education, International Motorcycle Safety Conference, 2013.
Scooter and moped sales have increased at a faster rate than motorcycle sales over the last decade in countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States. This may be particularly evident in jurisdictions where moped riding is permitted for car license holders and a motorcycle license is not required, such as in Queensland, Australia. Having historically comprised only a small proportion of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) outside of Europe and Asia, the safety of scooters and mopeds has received relatively little focused research attention. However, the recent trends in sales and crash involvement have stimulated greater interest in these PTW types. The current paper examines differences and similarities between scooters (over 50cc), mopeds (up to 50cc) and motorcycles in crash involvement and crash characteristics through analyses of crash and registration data from Queensland, Australia.

Modelling of Income Effect over Household Vehicle Ownership in a Motorcycle Dominant Environment: A Case Study of Khon Kaen City, Thailand, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013.
This study aims at examining the effect of income over vehicle ownership in a mid-sized motorcycle dominant environment city using Khon Kaen City, Thailand, as a case study. Multinomial logit models are employed based on a dataset collected in early 2010. Two different model structures to incorporate car and motorcycle ownership are introduced and results from both models are compared. A sensitivity analysis is also used to examine the effect of income exerting influence on each model. With different model structures, both approaches provide somewhat identical results at the aggregate level. Yet, some differences can be found in the specific alternative level. Finally, some discussions are given on the feasibility of introducing price mechanism policies and high quality public transit in order to restrain the vehicle ownership in mid-sized cities of Thailand.

Black Spot Cluster Analysis of Motorcycle Accidents, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013.
Road accident is now considered as a global problem. It is a cause of concern in the Philippines since road accidents are at present the major causes of fatalities, injuries and property damages. In Metro Manila, majority of the road accidents are incidents involving motorcycles. It is in this context that this study seeks to promote motorcycle safety awareness through the spatial analysis of motorcycle accident locations in Quezon City. The study will show that the clustering of accidents can be inferred from a Kernel Density Map, generated through the use of GIS, after manually plotting its location based on existing traffic accident records. It was found out that the higher density of accidents involving motorcycles in Quezon City are along major corridors such as Commonwealth Avenue, Elliptical Road, Quirino Highway, Mindanao Avenue and EDSA.

The Motorcycle Driving Behaviors on Heterogeneous Traffic: The Real World Driving Cycle on the Urban Roads in Makassar, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013.

The Motorcycle Emission Characteristics in Developing Countries: Logit and Regression Analysis of I/M Data in Makassar City, Indonesia.
The present paper aims to analyze the characteristics of motorcycle emission levels in Makassar City, Indonesia. Some motorcycle characteristics such vehicle age, engine size, traveled distance, and brands are explored. The study uses data of the motorcycle emission test results from I/M (Inspection and Maintenance) program in the city during 2010-2012. In analyzing the influence of the characteristics on the motorcycle emission, we develop the probability failure of the motorcycle emission test using binomial logit model. Regarding the model result, the study continues to develop a relationship model between the significant characteristics and the motorcycle emission levels using regression models. The results show that the motorcycle age is the significant variable in the logit model. Further, the polynomial regression model orde-3 shows that the CO and HC emission levels increase in following the motorcycle age increasing. The results provide an expectation in developing motorcycle emission prediction model in further studies.

Safety spaces for overtaking movements in motorcycle traffic flow, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013.
Overtaking movements of motorcycles occur very often in uncongested situations when a higher-speed motorcycle overtakes a lower-speed one. This study classifies overtaking movements into three types in the order of the larger traffic volume: (1) Only one influential motorcycle on the inner lane; (2) Only one influential motorcycle on the outer lane; (3) Two or more influential motorcycles ahead for investigating characteristics of safety spaces in each type. A safety space is defined as a space surrounding a motorcycle determined by the influence of other motorcycles. Here, this influence is measured by the safety level rate and the angle of view. Safety spaces of motorcycles for overtaking movements are calculated using data collected from a road segment in Ho Chi Minh City. This result can be used to develop a simulation model for describing the overtaking behavior of a motorcycle.

Household Car and Motorcycle Ownership and Transaction Behavior through a Life-Course Approach – a Case in Taipei City, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013.
One of the most pressing problems in today’s urban transportation environment is the ever-increasing number of private motor vehicles. To tackle this problem, many researchers start looking for factors that lead to travel behavioral changes. While most early studies in Taiwan take a cross-sectional approach and show a somewhat inconsistent result regarding the relationship between car and motorcycle ownership, this study assumes, arguably, that a longitudinal approach is necessary for better understanding of the problem. Based on empirical results of longitudinal analyses, this study finds that: 1) there is a positive association between life stages of honeymooner and crowded nester and the alternative of increasing a motorcycle; 2) the experience of exposure to motorcycle early in life have a positive effect on motorcycle acquirement and motorcycle replacement decision later in life; 3) households already owning motorcycle(s) are more likely to buy a car.

Motorcycle Taxi Service in Vietnam – Its Socioeconomic Impacts and Policy Considerations, e Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2013. Motorcycle taxis have been emerging in developing countries, especially developing Asian countries, as an informal public transport service. It could provide a fast, flexible, and cheap transport service to the general public. At the same time, it may also be main sources of income for the urban poor. Unfortunately, wider socioeconomic and environmental impacts of the service have never been understood fully. Regulations on the service have been lacking as well. This study aims to understand the main characteristics of the service, explore its broader impacts, and identify its possible roles in the future urban transport system. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in Hochiminh City, Vietnam in 2012 that covered 400 users, 100 operators or drivers, and 20 stakeholders. Based on the results, the study suggests necessary changes in the service business model and regulatory measures to improve the image and the quality of the service.

The general objective of this study was to access the impact of Microfinance bank on the socioeconomic standard of living of commercial motorcycle riders in Ilorin-west Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. Simple random technique was employed in selecting 54 Okada riders who registered with Ilorin-west local government area from different geographical locations. The main tool for data collection was the questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using the statistical tool chi-square (x2). This is used in order to reflect the statistical significance of the study. The average age of respondents was between 20 and 40 years. The analysis showed that majority of the respondents engaged in the service (of motorcycle riding) because there were no employment opportunities and also due to, lack of demand for their services for those who learned apprentice. Majority of the respondents were being financed by the microfinance banks and this increased their asset acquisition. Many of the commercial motorcycle riders are graduates and most of them with good grades. From the results obtained, the study concludes that there is a significant relationship between the microfinance bank and standard of living.

Experimental Study on the Effect of Density of EPS Buffer Layer on the Cushioning Property of Motorcycle Helmet, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013.
Build the model of motocross-style helmet with a dual – density and series-parallel EPS buffer layer and trial-produce helmet samples. Establish the impact experiment of the helmet model and obtain the values of HIC and Peak ACC based on the testing regulations of ECE R22.05. According to the analysis of the test results, the influence law of different EPS material densities to cushioning effect of the helmet was analyzed specifically. Experimental results show that the minimum values of HIC and Peak ACC can be obtained when the density of EPS is designed to be 0.06g/cm3; a dual – density and series – parallel EPS buffer layer has higher than 76 % of the energy absorption efficiency, and this buffer structure well reduces the values of HIC and Peak ACC, and provides effective protection for the head.

Authoritarian policing with Chinese characteristics: A case study of motorcycle bans in the Pearl River Delta. Despite unprecedented economic and social changes over the past three decades, China remains an authoritarian regime. However, the current authoritarian regime differs in many ways from that under Mao. Since the nature of a police force reflects the character of the political regime within which it operates, this paper explores current police practices in China. It argues that policing in China is neither completely authoritarian nor democratic, but best understood as soft-authoritarian. The case study examines policing of a motorcycle ban that was implemented to prevent motorcycle snatch theft in the Pearl River Delta. The police remained authoritarian and used many coercive strategies to push for the motorcycle ban. However, their hard-line strategies were matched by some soft-line persuasive tactics. I argue that changing state-society relations are leading to resistance to hard-authoritarian policing and contributing to soft-authoritarian policing in China.

Fatigue Analysis of a Motorcycle Frame System Based on a Road Test and the Finite Element Method, Materials Science Forum, 2013.
A motorcycle frame system is a load bearing structure that always appears to suffer fatigue damage after running for a long time, indeed the fatigue life of the frame ultimately decides the service life of a motorcycle. In our work, we predicted the fatigue life of a motorcycle frame manufactured from two different materials by carrying out a road test in combination with computational simulation work based on the finite element analysis method. Firstly, signals from the strain and acceleration stemming from the key parts of the frame were collected by the road test, from which we have a preliminary understanding of the amount and distribution of stress. After this a finite element model and a multi-body dynamic model of the frame were built to obtain the results of the stress and information on the load based on the road test. According to the different material properties of Q235 and AZ91, we finally obtained the fatigue life and also discovered the weak parts of the frame. From the road test and results of the simulation we concluded that at 50km/h, most of the stresses inherent in the Q235 frame were well under the yield strength of the material. Indeed the high stress that results in a short fatigue life in some places was caused by concentrated stress and some unreasonable structural design. The stress of the AZ91 fame was the same as the Q235 in the experimental working conditions, while the weight of the frame can be reduced significantly. However the damage caused by fatigue that appeared earlier in the AZ91 frame than the Q235 frame can be attributed to its lower strength material.

Comfort Properties of the Inner Padding Layer for Motorcycle Helmet. Life Science Journal, 2013.
The inner padding layer of the motorcycle helmet is one of the important components that control the factors of comfort during wearing the helmet, and provides a perfect fit and stability of the helmet on the head. The inner padding consists of a low-density flexible polyurethane layer attached to soft fabric layer that is in direct contact with the head. The study aimed at improving the functional properties of the soft fabric used in the inner padding of the helmet. In this regard, six woven samples were produced mostly from natural materials with different parameters such as; weft yarn material and count as well as weaving structures to assess in achieving the comfort properties. In addition, applying chemical treatments on the fabrics to impart antimicrobial properties, UV resistance and self-cleaning properties. The properties of the fabric samples before and after treatment were evaluated using radar charts in terms of the functional performance. The results revealed that 100% cotton treated fabric with twill 1\4 structure was the best sample in achieving high mechanical, physical and protection properties for granting comfort factors.

An Investigation on Aldehyde and Ammonia Emissions from a 4-Stroke Gasoline-Fueled Motorcycle. Ammonia Emission Reduction by using a SCR Catalyst. SAE International, 2013.
In order to comply with the introduction of new emission limits, motorcycles have been equipped with electronic injection systems and three-way catalytic converters for emissions abatement. However, these converters produce unwanted reactions, such as the formation of ammonia. This paper was focused on ammonia emission reduction in motorcycles. To provide ammonia abatement, one SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) catalyst has been developed and installed in a fourstroke motorcycle in addition to the original one, a three way catalyst (TWC). SCR systems work by chemically reducing NOx (NO and NO2) to nitrogen (N2). This is an experimental research work conducted by the Research and Development Institute (Lactec) and the Umicore Automotive Catalysts. Regulated and unregulated emissions have been measured in a chassis dynamometer test cell. The results show that it is possible to reduce ammonia emissions, but the SCR catalyst performance has to be improved by optimizing the SCR technology and position, increasing the temperature inside the SCR, and promoting proper chemical reaction to reduce NOx.

An Analysis of Motorcycle Traffic and Crashes in Nigeria – A case study of Minna, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Technological Research, 2012.
The study examined the traffic volume by mode and established the prominence of the motorcycle as the principal mode of commuting in the city of Minna. Data was sourced through traffic census carried out by the author in November 2011, records from the general Hospital and the Federal Road Safety Corps Office in Minna. The analysis revealed that motorcycle traffic is particularly heavy in neighbourhoods off the main arterial road which concentrates 50% of all vehicular traffic, 83% of taxicabs and 35% of car movements in the entire city. The heavy volume of motorcycle traffic is reflected in the number of motorcycle crashes and casualties. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 1,295 motorcycle crashes were recorded with August to December of every year as the worst months thus lending credence to the popular belief that the “ember” months are months of misfortune in Nigeria. During the same period, 13,918 motorcycle crash induced injuries and 227 deaths were recorded. The mean number of injured victims rose astronomically from 519 in the four-year period of 2000 – 2003 to 2,356 between 2008 – 2011. The study also revealed that behavioral factors such as dangerous driving, speed and route violation and driving under the influence of alcohol accounted for 75% of all the crashes.

Trends in fatal motorcycle injuries in the Americas, 1998–2010. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2013.
Injuries, disabilities and deaths among motorcyclists have been rising worldwide but what is happening in the American Continent is not completely known. Deaths from motorcycle crashes of the Pan American Health Organization database (PAHO/WHO, 1998-2010) were included in an ecologic multi-national study to quantify the temporal trends and to estimate the association between motorcycle riders’ deaths and selected socio-economic indicators. Mortality rates increased in all sub-regions. The highest increase was reported in the countries of the Andean sub-region (Ecuador, 78.3%) and Mesoamerica (Costa Rica, 60.0%). Poorer countries fared worse in terms of motorcycle mortality relative to richer countries, as did more unequal ones. Recent economic changes, rapid increment of motorisation rates, affordability of motorcycles over public transportation, lack of adequate public transportation policies and other insufficient measures aimed at improving safety can explain these trends.

A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2013.
The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of ‘looked-but-failed-to-see’ crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether–acknowledging the differences in exposure–car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars.

Characterization of the Attenuation Properties in Motorcycle Helmets. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 2013.
The general perception of motorists is that motorcycle helmets not only protect riders against head injuries but also isolate them from the outside noise. However, the acoustic insulation of the helmet is not necessarily as effective as it is perceived. To objectively evaluate the acoustic insulation of the helmet, the insertion loss of a sample of five helmets of full face types from different manufacturers was measured in an semi-anechoic chamber. In the whole processa dummy with microphones in the ear (HATS) was used. The measurement was made according to ISO 4869-3:2007, and it studies three directions of sound arrival (front, lateral and rear). The results obtained indicate that the values of insertion loss are negative in the frequency range of 16 to 250315 Hz. Furthermore, according to the test, in the range of 250 and 800 Hz there is little insulation, and from 800 Hz insulation increases at a rate of 12 dB/octave or 6 dB/Octave. It has been shown that the occurrence of negative values of insertion loss between the 16 and 250–315 Hz is not attributable to the diffraction of the helmet. Nevertheless, the explanation of this phenomenon may be related to the geometry inside the helmet. The variety of helmets used in this study allows us to extrapolate this result to any helmet of this type. The independence of the insertion loss in relation to the state of the vents (open or closed) has also been demonstrated.

The significance and issues of motorcycle transport in the Urban areas in northern Ghana. Scientific Journal of Review, 2013.
In many developing countries, motorcycles are increasingly becoming the common means of transport especially among low-income urban dwellers (urban poor) and many rural people. The high ownership and use of motorcycle in the urban areas in northern Ghana has come with its accompanying challenges like motorcycle accidents involving fatalities; environmental and public health concerns from the emissions; non-compliance to motor traffic regulations-for instance helmet use is generally low in Ghana among others among other things. The high incidence of motorcycle ownership and use has also been contributing significantly in the betterment of many livelihoods of urban residents in northern Ghana and at the instance of Wa. The increasing growth in the number of motorcycles has come to solve the mobility needs of many urban residents in the light of poor and inadequate public transport system, poor road conditions particularly those leading into the peri- urban areas where many people in Wa reside as a result of urban sprawl. It also comes along with a host of opportunities including employment to motorcycle mechanics and motorcycle spare parts dealers, local revenue generating sources through taxes/levies on motorcycle owners/riders as well as motorcycle registration and licensing. This paper examines the effects of motorcycle growth in the social and economic development or livelihoods of Wa, the regional capital of the Upper West Region of Ghana.

Motorcycle and Motor Scooter Use in Victoria, Australia. Transportation Research Record, 2013.

‘Immediate consciousness’ and the American open road: Robert Pirsig’s Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Studies in Travel Writing, 2013.
Although it has most often been viewed as a work of philosophy, Robert Pirsig’s Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974) is, more accurately, a travel narrative that takes readers on a journey by motorcycle across the northern plains of the USA. The book earned enormous success in the marketplace and remains a compelling exploration of the divisiveness that permeated American culture in the 1960s and early 1970s. Pirsig, in recounting his journey, offers a vision of wholeness evidenced by the narrator’s evolving awareness of the intertwined relationships between seemingly intractable cultural conflict and personal pursuits of happiness. This essay explores how Pirsig responds to the social challenges of his day and his own demons by tapping into the popular history of the motorcycle, a paradoxical machine that has served as both a symbol of subversion and an ideal machine for experiencing the mythical dreams of the American open road.

Macroeconomic Fluctuations and Motorcycle Fatalities in the U.S. University of Miami, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers, 2013.
The effects of business cycles on health outcomes in general, and on traffic fatalities in particular, have received much attention recently. In this paper, we focus on motorcycle safety and examine the impact of changing levels of economic activity on fatal crashes by motorcyclists in the United States. We analyze state-level longitudinal data from the 1988-2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Using the extensive motorcycle crash characteristics available in FARS, we examine total and disaggregated fatality rates. Our results are consistent with much of the existing literature showing that traffic fatality rates are pro-cyclical. The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in real income per capita is associated with a 10.4% rise in the total motorcycle fatality rate. Along with the potential mechanisms, policymakers and public health officials should consider the effects of business cycles on motorcycle safety.

Newspaper Coverage of Motorcycle Accidents: A Content Analysis from a Media Framing Perspective with Implications for Practice, IJMS, 2013.

Modeling and simulation of motorcycle traffic flow, Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004.
Mixed-traffic that contains motorized and nonmotorized vehicles becomes more common in urban areas. Compare with motorized traffic, nonmotorized traffic flow theory isn’t mature enough. In this study, a motorcycle traffic flow model is proposed. It contains longitudinal and lateral movement models. The motorcycle traffic flow is influenced by driver characteristics, vehicle interactions, and the external environment all of which the proposed model would take into account. Finally, a motorcycle traffic flow simulation is presented. The simulation result indicates that the proposed model is reasonable, and it can reflect some motorcycle traffic flow phenomena. The behaviors of bicycles and pedestrians are similar to motorcycles; the result of this study could be the basis of bicycle or pedestrian flow model.

Inhomogeneous cellular automata modeling for mixed traffic with cars and motorcycles, Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2005.
This paper develops inhomogeneous cellular automata models to elucidate the interacting movements of cars and motorcycles in mixed traffic contexts. The car and motorcycle are represented by non-identical particle sizes that respectively occupy 6×2 and 2×1 cell units, each of which is 1.25×1.25 meters. Based on the field survey, we establish deterministic cellular automata (CA) rules to govern the particle movements in a two-dimensional space. The instantaneous positions and speeds for all particles are updated in parallel per second accordingly. The deterministic CA models have been validated by another set of field observed data. To account for the deviations of particles’ maximum speeds, we further modify the models with stochastic CA rules. The relationships between flow, cell occupancy (a proxy of density) and speed under different traffic mixtures and road (lane) widths are then elaborated.

THE SPEED, FLOW AND HEADWAY ANALYSES OF MOTORCYCLE TRAFFIC, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2005.
Although much knowledge about traffic characteristics was acknowledged, very little attention has been paid regarding motorcycle. The purpose of this study addresses a comprehensive analysis of motorcycle behavior and operation through videotaping of some roads that have significant motorcycle proportion. Four locations in Hanoi, Vietnam have been found to meet criteria for data collection, including exclusive motorcycle lanes, mixed traffic and undivided roadways. Speed – flow relationships were developed for all locations, in which the adjustment factor for the present of vehicles other than motorcycle was based on motorcycle equivalent unit. Statistical analyses of the empirical data were utilized to demonstrate the characteristics of motorcycle speed, time headway regarding to traffic flow. The present paper provides a basic understanding of characteristics of motorcycle traffic. The finding obtains from this research may be used to develop new procedures for Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), which adapt developing countries as well as provide the data needed to develop a motorcycle simulation model.

Evaluation of intersection collision warning system using an inter-vehicle communication simulator, Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2004.
An inter-vehicle communication (IVC) simulator has been developed to evaluate an intersection collision warning system. Various representative intersection collision scenarios are simulated. The physical and media access control layer of the wireless communication network are modelled in the IVC simulator for transmission of collision warning messages. The results show that such a collision warning strategy is a viable way for reducing the collisions at the intersections.

New Approach to Modeling Mixed Traffic Containing Motorcycles in Urban Areas, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2010.
Motorcycles constitute a significant proportion of traffic in many countries but are poorly represented in existing traffic flow theories and simulation software. A new approach to modeling mixed traffic is introduced focusing on depicting the movements of motorcycles. In this study, the characteristic patterns of motorcycle behavior were identified, and the key elements contributing to these patterns were extracted. Then three mathematical models were developed to depict these key elements, which were calibrated by using field data collected at Victoria Embankment in central London. After the calibration procedures, these models were integrated into an agent-based simulation model system. The ability of the simulator to reproduce plausible patterns of car and motorcycle behavior was verified. A number of potential applications of this simulator for the management of mixed traffic streams in urban areas are discussed.

Hospital charges associated with motorcycle crash factors: a quantile regression analysis, Injury Prevention, 2013. Background Previous studies of motorcycle crash (MC) related hospital charges use trauma registries and hospital records, and do not adjust for the number of motorcyclists not requiring medical attention. This may lead to conservative estimates of helmet use effectiveness. Methods MC records were probabilistically linked with emergency department and hospital records to obtain total hospital charges. Missing data were imputed. Multivariable quantile regression estimated reductions in hospital charges associated with helmet use and other crash factors. Results Motorcycle helmets were associated with reduced median hospital charges of $256 (42% reduction) and reduced 98th percentile of $32 390 (33% reduction). After adjusting for other factors, helmets were associated with reductions in charges in all upper percentiles studied. Quantile regression models described homogenous and heterogeneous associations between other crash factors and charges. Conclusions Quantile regression comprehensively describes associations between crash factors and hospital charges. Helmet use among motorcyclists is associated with decreased hospital charges.

Applying Technology Acceptance Model to Explore the Adoption of Hydrogen-Electric Motorcycle in Taiwan, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013.
With the highest concentration of motorcycles in Asia, Taiwan was caused a major traffic congestion and air pollution. To effectively reduce these environmental burdens, Electric Motorcycle Industry Development and Promotion Plan was passed by Taiwanese government. With this plan, people was encouraged to invest in mass production of electric motorcycles. This paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore consumers behavioral intentions and their influencing factors regarding using hydrogen-electric motorcycles. This is a first in hydrogen battery research, and also one of this papers contributions. Results show that consumers’ innovativeness towards hydrogen-electric motorcycles does not significantly affect behavioural intentions. To increase customers’ behavioural intentions towards hydrogen-electric motorcycles, the customers’ innovativeness towards hydrogen-electric motorcycles should be strengthened by motorcycle manufacturers, and perceived risk should be decreased. Then, to improve customers behavioural intentions towards hydrogen-electric motorcycles in the end.

In depth study of 39 motorcycle collisions in Northern Ireland between 2004 and 2010 in which 41 motorcyclists were fatally injured, Transportation Research Board, 2012.
This study analyses 39 cases in which 41 motorcyclists were fatally injured, or 36% of total motorcycle fatalities in Northern Ireland between 2004 and 2010 (114). There were 17 cases (43.6%) where the actions of another vehicle driver caused the collision, in thirteen of these cases the motorcycles had their lights switched on. The remaining 22 collisions (56.4%) were due to the actions of the motorcyclist. In the approach to the collision scene, there were 13 cases (31.7%) in which the approach was a right hand bend and in 8 (19.5%) cases, the approach was a left hand bend. In the remaining 18 (43.9%) cases, the approach was a straight road. Of the 17 (41.4%) motorcycles that slid after falling, 10 (24.4%) fell onto their right side and the remaining 7 (17.1%) fell onto their left side. The information from this study identifies primary and contributory causes of motorcycle collisions. (A) Paper to the session Accident Causation and Prevention” of the 5th International Conference on ESAR “Expert Symposium on Accident Research”, 7th to 8th September 2012 in Hannover.

Newspaper Coverage of Motorcycle Accidents: A Content Analysis from a Media Framing Perspective with Implications for Practice. International Jornal of Motorcycle Studies, 2013.

Objects Vibrating Disobedience: A Phenomenology of the Motorcycle, an Orientation of a Dyke on a Bike. International Jornal of Motorcycle Studies, 2013.

Risky Business: This is Your Brain on a Motorcycle. International Jornal of Motorcycle Studies, 2013.

Black Cat: Fighting Gender Stereotypes through Motorcycling. International Jornal of Motorcycle Studies, 2013.

A uni ed analysis of funny control (Mat Rempit). ISMIL12, 2008.
This paper discusses a construction in Malay/Indonesian which Gil (2002) calls the funny control construction.

Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics of illegal motorcycle street racers in Malaysia. BMC Public Health 2011.
Background. This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the “Mat Rempit”. Methods. Street outreach interviewer-administered surveys were conducted from June 2008 to January 2009 in this multi-state study. Results. A total of 2022 participants were surveyed, the mean ± SD age of the participants was 20.5 ± 3.4 years (age range: 12 to 35 years). Mean duration of street racing was 2.65(SD ± 1.77) years (range: 2 months to 12 years), with 50.1% and 35.8% reporting stunt riding and alcohol drinking while racing, respectively. With regard to risk behaviours, cigarette smoking was highly prevalent among the study participants (78.3%), followed by alcohol drinking (27.8%) and recreational drug use (18.8%). Participants scored high on the masculinity scale (15.7 ± 4.0 out of 21.0). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that socio-demographic variables, risk behaviour and masculinity scores were associated with racing frequency. Conclusion. Given these associations, tailoring family-centered interventions to the needs of the lower socio-economic groups and interventions recognizing the negative consequences of health risk behaviours related to street racing as an expression of traditional masculinity should be emphasized.

The Outlaw Motorcycle Press. Robert Sandarg, Studies in Popular Culture, 1984.

Analysis of Relationship between Pioneer Brand Status and Consumer’s Attitude toward a Brand (Case on Yamaha Automatic vs. Honda Automatic Transmission Motorcycle in Indonesia), ASEAN MARKETING JOURNAL, 2011.
Previous research have indicated that brand pioneership provide some advantages such as high market share barriers to entry and consumers preference as well as higher consumer attitude. This paper intends to explore the relationship between perceived brand pioneership on consumers’ brand attitude. The study focuses on two competing brands from automatic transmission motorcycle category, namely Yamaha and Honda. Based on result from 90 respondents, this study confirms the perception that Yamaha (although not the true pioneer) is perceived by the majority of respondents as the pioneering brand in the automatic transmission motorcycle. This study also found that those respondents who perceived that Yamaha is the pioneer brand tend to ascribe higher brand attitude toward Yamaha than toward Honda. Result from this study adds to the repository of studies concerning brand pioneership as well as adding to repository of knowledge about Indonesian consumer behavior.

Models Transfer Mode on the Motorcycle Commuter Rail User, International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science, 2013.
In some decades in developing countries, the public interest by motorcycle indicates numbers far exceed other modes of transportation. In fulfilling wishes to move from place to place, constrained by motorcycle mileage. Commuter rail transportation distance is most in demand by urban communities. With the increasing number users are using the bike commuter rail so it needed the transfer mode model of motorcycle users in Jabodetabek commuter train users, using dynamic analysis so that users of motorcycles and commuter rail operations more effective and efficient.

Alcohol and drugs among motorcycle riders compared with car and van drivers killed in road crashes in Norway during 2001-2010. International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Australia, 2013
Approximately 3.05 million motor vehicles are registered in Norway. Motorcycles and mopeds (MMs) represent 11 per cent of the vehicles and 2 per cent of the rides but as much as 21 per cent of drivers killed in road traffic crashes. This research investigates the prevalence of alcohol and drugs above the legislative limits among MM riders killed in road traffic crashes and compare with killed car and van (CV) drivers. Blood samples were selected from those routinely submitted by the police for analysis of alcohol and drugs in fatal traffic accidents during 2001-10. They were coupled with data from the Norwegian Road Traffic Accident Registry. Samples were analysed for alcohol and drugs. Alcohol or drugs were found in samples from 40 per cent and 27 per cent of killed CV and MM drivers; for single vehicle (SV) accidents 64 per cent and 45 per cent. Alcohol was most commonly found among drivers below 25 years, illicit drugs among those 25-34 years and medicinal drugs among those 35-54 years. Amphetamines and benzodiazepines were the most frequently found illicit and medicinal drug groups. The highest prevalence of alcohol or drugs was found in samples from drivers killed in SV accidents during weekend nights. MM drivers were more often involved in fatal accidents compared to the fraction of MM vehicles in normal traffic. However, the prevalence of alcohol or drugs was lower among MM drivers compared to CV drivers. One reason for the difference may be that MM drivers are less protected in an accident compared to CV drivers.

Design Optimization on the Lower Arm of Motorcycle Chassis Using Laminated Structure with Foam-Core Material. Innovation, Communication and Engineering, 2014.

Towards identifying the roll motion parameters of a motorcycle simulator. Applied Ergonomics, 2013.
This study aimed at identifying the roll motion parameters of a motorcycle simulator prototype. Experienced motorcyclists tuned the angular physical movement of the mock-up and that of the visual scene to achieve an optimal riding experience during curves. The participants exceeded the rolling angles that would be required in real-world riding, while avoiding leaning the mock-up beyond 10°. In addition, they were more influenced by the speed of the virtual motorcycle than by road curvature, especially in a wide field of view. Heterogeneity was found in the roll applied to the visual scene. The overall patterns suggest that at least when washout is not applied to remove the side forces that in real-world riding are compensated by a centrifugal force, greater roll of the visual at the expense of the mock-up is mandatory to avoid performance biases that might be enhanced due to fear of falling off the simulator. Future roll motion models must take into consideration factors such as riding postures, which might not only influence the forces operating on the rider-motorcycle system, but also how motorcyclists perceive the visual world.

Public attitudes towards motorcyclists’ safety: A qualitative study from the United Kingdom. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2013.
The aim of the reported research was to examine the perceptions of road user safety amongst different road users and examine the link between attitudes, empathy and skill in motorcycle safety behaviour. Motorcyclists were perceived by the study participants, members of the public at four different locations at the UK (including motorcyclists and non-motorcyclists), as a group be at a high risk of accidents on the road. This was due to perceived behavioural characteristics of motorcyclists – who were viewed as ‘thrill seekers’ – as well as observed behaviours on the road. This, coupled with the physical vulnerability and excessive speeds, meant that motorbike driving was considered by the study participants as the least safe form of road use. There was broad agreement that motorcycling was dangerous as a whole, but not all motorcyclists were necessarily risky riders. The issue of ‘competitive space’ emerged between car drivers and motorcyclists in particular and it was suggested that there was a lack of mutual awareness and considerations between the two groups. Generally, greatest empathy comes from drivers who are motorcyclists themselves. Engineering, education, enforcement interventions were investigated. These were aimed at two main areas: normalising safer driving behaviours for motorcyclists and increasing awareness of bikes for motorists—particularly in relation to reducing speed limits at urban junctions. Finally, the idea of risk mapping and reduced speed limits on rural roads was seen as potentially effective—particularly as certain motorcyclists highlighted that they changed their riding behaviours by increasing speed and taking greater risks on these roads.

Design, Modeling and Development of a Serial Hybrid Motorcycle with HCCI Engine. Advances in Automobile Engineering, 2013.

BICICLETAS PARA USO PERSONALIZADO: RECOMENDAÇÕES ANTROPOMÉTRICAS . 9º Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Design, 2010.
Este artigo traz recomendações para o dimensionamento de bicicletas baseadas no referencial teórico levantado, assim como no experimento realizado por Pequini (2005), cujos resultados mostraram que o correto dimensionamento da bicicleta, assim como, a postura do tronco, ereto ou em flexão, são fundamentais para o conforto dos usuários e a prevenção de patologias relacionadas à prática do ciclismo. Foram levantadas recomendações para a utilização de bicicletas a partir de experimentos científicos realizados por especialistas na área médica, na educação física, fisioterapia etc.

The Zen of driving a motorcycle through a national park: Reconciling group-oriented with practice-oriented research approaches. 5th Conference for Research in Protected Areas, 2013.
Hikers in the Swiss National Park often complain about noise from motorcycles. The park management consequently seeks to mitigate conflicts that are imminent between hikers and motor-bikers. Management-oriented research in protected areas often focuses on specific groups of tourists. The identification of such actor groups and their behaviour is used to improve the supply of goods and services, to minimize negative impacts and conflicts, and to create satisfying experiences. While this actor- or group-oriented approach seems to be useful for many issues, it has the disadvantage of nailing down individual tourists to (allegedly) behaving according to certain group-specific characteristics (i.e. “motorcyclists create noise”). In contrast, practice-oriented approaches rather focus on certain tourist or park visitor practices. This allows for a more flexible approach taking into account that people act differently in different contexts and not (always) according to a pre-defined group’s profile. Moreover, issues such as noise created by the practice of motorcycling are pinpointed to the practice and not to the characteristics of a person or group. Consequently, solutions to conflicts can be sought with reflecting on practices rather than on specific visitor groups. Using examples of our own (group- and practice-oriented) research in PAs the paper discusses advantages and limitations of both approaches and explores ways how they can be fruitfully combined.

Rural Dweller’s Perception of Impacts of Motorcycle (Okada) Services in Community Development in Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 2013.
Rural dwellers’ are of opinion that impact of Okada services was a gradual development of the rural economy leading to poverty alleviation and food security. This study identifies factors affecting Okada services, impact of Okada services and constraints hindering Okada services in Community development. From the perception of the rural dwellers’ A 5-point likert -type scale containing pretested statements was used to measure the impacts, while constraints was measure by the use of A-3 point likert-type scale in three randomly chosen communities from 3 purposively selected Local Government Areas of Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone in Oyo State. The study found that majority of the rural dwellers are strongly agreed and agreed on the economy impacts, agricultural impacts, cultural impacts, societal impacts, health impacts and environmental impacts derived from okada services in rural community development. It thus demonstrated that the perception of rural dwellers’ on the constraints hindered okada services in community development were major constraints. The study also shows that rural dwellers’ socio-economic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, household size) influenced their perception of impacts of okada services in rural community development while, age, number of years in school, marital status, length of residence and household size Influenced their perception of constraints hindered okada services in community development. Therefore any measures seeking to influence the process of okada services should meet the rural dwellers perception of impacts of okada service in community development, government needs to take serious look at the deeper economic implications of the okada services with a view to ensuring that youth were discourage from okada services by enable them to benefit reliable employment opportunity for sustainability of future economy in all sectors.

O Uso da Motocicleta e a Inclusão Social. 19º Congresso Brasileiro de Transporte Trânsito, 2013.
Este trabalho tem por objetivo mostrar, com base numa pesquisa realizada na zona norte da Cidade do Recife, com usuários de motocicletas, as mudanças no alcance dos destinos das pessoas de baixa renda após a aquisição de uma motocicleta, que passou a ser utilizada como meio de transporte cotidiano, em substituição a modos usados

The motorcyclist’s body motion following a motorcycle impact against a motor car side is determined by a system of forces and reactions acting on the rider’s body. An analysis of this motion was carried out, based on a research experiment. The related measurements and calculations were taken as a basis for an analysis of the dynamic loads; they also indicated the type and scope of the bodily injuries that may be incurred by the motorcyclist during a road accident. Based on the research experiment, the trajectory of motorcyclist’s head and torso and the course of contact between the motorcyclist’s body and the car were determined. The acceleration values having been obtained from the measurements were used for determining the displacements and changes in the angular position of motorcyclist’s head and torso. The research experiment confirmed the motorcyclist’s head to be the part of his/her body that undergoes the highest accelerations. The system of forces and reactions acting on motorcyclist’s body at the initial stage of the motion under consideration may lead to a situation dangerous to the motorcyclist where his/her head hits the edge of the car roof.

A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF MOTORCYCLE SAFETY SITUATION IN ASIAN COUNTRIES. Journal of Society for Transportation and Traffic Studies (JSTS), 2013.
Motorcycles have caused a considerable number of road accidents in most Asian countries’ road networks. This indicates that motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road usersthroughout these networks. For the sake of better motorcycle safety in Asia, this paper provides an overview of the onroad motorcycle usage pattern, the reality ofsafety situation, and the challenges to identify the needed actions to improve safety in these countries.

Study on Electric Motorcycle Road Simulation Testing System Based on DSP. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013.
According to the laboratory detection systems can not completely replace the electric motorcycle road inspection and unable to reproduce the problem, this paper designed a real road condition simulation and test system, developed a control core-board which was driven by DSP(TMS320LF2407A). Simulations and tests based on the database of road condition can be realized when the core drives the workbench using control algorithm. The experiment and application show that this test system has good performance, and achieve the design requirement.

Tendência de mortalidade por acidentes de motocicleta no estado de Pernambuco, no período de 1998 a 2009. Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde, 2013.
Convém citar que a pesquisa apresenta limitações. Por se tratar de um estudo epidemiológico quantitativo descritivo, não tem a pretensão de investigar fatores de risco e processos sociais envolvidos nos acidentes em cada RD. Sugere-se que outros estudos, principalmente de abordagem qualitativa, sejam feitos para dar conta dessas lacunas. Outra limitação do estudo é a utilização do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade – SIM – como fonte de dados, pela provável existência de subregistro dos óbitos nos municípios do interior; e ademais, pela utilização de seus dados brutos, sem redistribuição dos óbitos por acidentes de transporte não especificados, assim como aqueles por causas mal definidas, o que pode ter resultado em subestimação dos coeficientes. Apesar das limitações que a pesquisa possa apresentar, reveste-se de importância na medida em que evidencia a magnitude do problema dos acidentes de motocicleta e sinaliza que a tendência futura é de piora em Pernambuco. Considerando-se que esses acidentes geram impacto social elevado para o Estado e para o país, o estudo revela às autoridades, tanto da área da Saúde como dos gestores das diversas políticas relacionadas aos acidentes de transporte terrestre, a necessidade de se investir em medidas de promoção, prevenção e intervenções que envolvam, pelo menos, o ambiente de circulação dos veículos e medidas comportamentais relacionadas ao indivíduo.

Injury Patterns And Discharge Dispositions In BC Motorcycle Accident Victims: A Retrospective Chart Analysis. UBC Medical Journal, 2013.
OBJECTIVE: Motorcycle ridership is rising in Canada. Though motorcycling injuries have been studied in the United States, Europe and Asia, there is a paucity of Canadian studies. We provide a descriptive analysis of injury patterns in motorcycle crash victims and their relationship to discharge disposition and length of hospital stay. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients involved in a motorcycle crash and admitted to Vancouver General Hospital between April 2001 and December 2009 (N = 567). We extracted data from the ICD-10 coded Discharge Abstract Database, and re-coded injuries into overarching anatomical categories. Discharge dispositions were recorded as they appeared in patient charts. RESULTS: Riders tended to be male (89.2%) and had a mean age of 37.2. The average length of stay was 14.4 days. The most common injuries were tibial fractures (N = 108, 19% of cases), forearm fractures (N = 105, 18.5%), and rib fractures (N=92%, 16.2%). Most riders were discharged home (N=403, 70.0%), and these patients most commonly sustained tibial and forearm fractures (N=70, 17.4%, for each). Those who remained in hospital were most likely to have sustained injuries to the pelvis (N=43, 29.3%), cervical spine (N=38, 25.9%), or thoracic spine (N=37, 25.2%). Among the 14 patients (2.5%) who expired, the most common injuries were intracranial haemorrhage, rib fracture, haemothorax, liver injury, and cervical spine fracture (N=5, 35.7% each). CONCLUSION: The results provide a starting point to help physicians predict injuries in motorcycle crash victims as well as predict their dispositions.

Stabilization Control of a Motorcycle During Braking. ASME 2012 5th Annual Dynamic Systems and Control Conference joint with the JSME 2012 11th Motion and Vibration Conference, 2012.
In this paper, a front-steering assist control is designed to stabilize a motorcycle during braking. The rider-motorcycle system with its pitching motions is linearized around an equilibrium point of quasi-steady state straight running with constant deceleration. From the viewpoints of eigenvalues and frequency responses, the linearized model is analyzed and a reduced-order model is obtained to design the control system by using H∞ control theory. By carrying out simulations during braking, it is demonstrated that the control system can stabilize a motorcycle when receiving a sudden disturbance from the front wheel and is robust against parameter variations and several braking situations.

Motorcycle Muffler–Induced “Pillion Burns” of Distal Leg. A Persistent Problem of Increasing Proportions in Indian Settings. International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 2013.
Motorcycles have emerged as a viable mode of transport for millions in the third world. Mufflers (exhaust pipes in some countries) remain a potential “Achilles’ tendon” or a designing flaw in the mass-produced, economical motorcycles of the developing world. Owing to the excessive temperature they attain while the hot exhaust gases pass through them and their proximity to the lower limbs while riding a motorcycle, they can lead to burns of varying nature in the lower leg. This is a descriptive retrospective study of muffler-induced lower leg burns treated at our hospital from January 2008 to December 2012. Various parameters including history, exact mode of injury, age, sex, degree and location of burn, treatment modalities, and other relevant circumstantial/logistical factors associated with such injuries were noted; data were tabulated and statistically arranged to gain an insight into this problem. Possible interventions that may help avoid such injuries are also briefly mentioned. Certain findings that are quite distinct to the findings of a few earlier studies carried out on this topic (in the developed world) remain the highlight of our study. The typical muffler-induced burns in the Indian setting occur almost exclusively in the male pillions, most of the times in the right leg in an area near the medial maleolus, and are usually second degree and respond to conservative management. Prompt treatment can circumvent much of the dreaded complications. Preemptive efforts in designing of motorcycles and following traffic regulations at the individual level remain the key to prevention.

Study on Impact Energy Absorbing Performance of EPS Buffer Layer of Motorcycle Helmet. International Conference on Mechanical and Automation Engineering, 2013.
EPS buffer layer of Motorcycle helmet is significant for protecting the head, experiments were conducted in order to obtain the impact energy absorbing characteristics of EPS buffer layers which were designed to have different densities, According to the analysis of the test results, mechanical behavior of EPS cushioning material was discussed, and the influence law of material density to collision energy absorption characteristics of EPS material was analyzed specifically. The results showed that dual density EPS buffer layer design of the top of the helmet can effectively reduce the peak acceleration of collision to about 200G, The density of EPS material can be properly designed based on the relationship of stress and collision energy absorption rate, and thereby collision energy absorbing characteristics of the EPS buffer layer is better. When the EPS density was chosen to be 0.06g/cm3, its collision energy absorption of buffer layer approach the best effect.

25 Moving Motorcycle into Stationary Car Tests: Cars 2009 Data. Accident Reconstruction Journal, Volume: 23, Issue Number: 4, 2013.
This article discusses the findings from crash tests involving a moving motorcycle colliding with a stationary motor vehicle, conducted by the California Association of Accident Reconstruction Specialists. Twenty-five motorcycles were tested and eight passenger cars were used as targets. The test location, delivery system, test setup, forensic mapping, vehicles and test results are described in the article. The authors suggests that the datasets significantly contribute to the knowledge base regarding motorcycle crash performance.

Design of the Motorcycle Engine Fuel Supplying System Based on the Ultrasonic Atomization. Advanced Materials Research, 2013.
A set of fuel supply system, in place of the carburetor, based on ultrasonic atomization is designed. The fuel for the new system which is atomized into micron grade fog grain with ultrasonic system, increases the fuel and air mixing contact area, make the fuel mix more uniform. The experimental results shows that the HC and CO conce-ntration in tail gas of new system has significantly lower,and CO2 is increased, which demonstrates the fuel burning more fully, achieve the effect of energy saving and emission reduction. The cost is quite to carburetor type.

Injury Severity in Delivery-Motorcycle to Vehicle Crashes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2013.
More than 56% of motorcycles in Korea are used for the purpose of delivering parcels and food. Since such delivery requires quick service, most motorcyclists commit traffic violations while delivering, such as crossing the centerline, speeding, running a red light, and driving in the opposite direction down one-way streets. In addition, the fatality rate for motorcycle crashes is about 12% of the fatality rate for road traffic crashes, which is considered to be high, although motorcycle crashes account for only 5% of road traffic crashes in South Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes that have occurred during delivery. To examine the risk of different injury levels sustained under all crash types of vehicle-to-motorcycle, this study applied an Ordered probit model. Based on the results, this study proposes policy implications to reduce the injury severity of vehicle-to-motorcycle crashes during delivery.

Highly Efficient Lubricant for Sport Motorcycle Application – Fuel Economy and Durability Testing. SAE International, 2013.
As a result of extremely competitive market environment and severe emission legislation, motorcycle manufacturers are giving increased focus to the lubricant as a potential tool to improve engine performance reducing at same time tailpipe emissions and fuel consumption. However, due to very specific hardware constraints, application of highly efficient low viscosity oils to modern motorcycle requires careful formulation approach and thorough testing procedure. Previous work carried out by Castrol and described in SAE paper # 2011-32-0513 indicated that optimized, low viscosity motorcycle engine oils, formulated with dedicated technology to combine optimum clutch compatibility with engine and gearbox protection, can bring significant increase in engine power and acceleration in comparison with commercially available lubricants. This paper describes the progress of the development work, aiming at further understanding potential benefits and constraints arising from the application of low viscosity, highly efficient engine oils to current motorcycle engine technology. The work included the evaluation of the fuel economy potential for experimental low viscosity formulations using a sport tourer motorcycle fitted on chassis dynamometer, followed by extended high speed engine durability evaluation of one of the formulations on two different super sport motorcycle engines, representative of latest generation hardware technology. Results of Fuel Economy tests showed that carefully formulated low viscosity lubricants can provide reduction in fuel consumption when compared with conventional, commercially available products. Both the durability test programs were successfully completed with key engine and driveline components in good conditions at end of test, confirming potential applicability of low viscosity engine oils to modern high performance sport bikes.

Prevalence of motorcycle helmet use in Sri Lanka: An observational study. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 2013.
In Sri Lanka, helmet use is mandatory by law. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use in Sri Lanka. An observational study was conducted in four locations: two locations entering and leaving the city of Kandy, a rural area in the Kandy district, and the high way (A1) leading to Colombo from Kandy. All the motorcyclists that passed the observation locations were observed. Of all the 1254 motorcycle users, 1140 subjects used helmets (90.1%), as follows: 863 ‘riders’ (97.7%), 275 ‘pillion riders’ (second passengers) (84.1%), two ‘third passengers’ (5.4%) and none of the ‘fourth passengers’(0.0%). Out of 106 observed child passengers, only 25 (23.5%) wore helmets. The significant finding of this study was that majority of adult motorcycle users used helmets while majority of children did not. Motorcycle helmet laws need to be strictly implemented against non-use of helmets by children in Sri Lanka. A further qualitative study is needed to examine the reasons for non-use of helmets among children.

Details of motorcycle accidents and their impact on healthcare costs. Ulus Travma Acil Cerr Derg, 2013.
BACKGROUND: Of overall traffic accidents in 2011 in Turkey, 7.58% (n=21,107) were motorcycle accidents. Motorcycle accidents and their impact on healthcare costs are investigated in our study. METHODS: Motorcycle accidents that occurred with/without a collision between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 were studied prospectively through the inspection of patients visiting the Emergency Service. The healthcare costs relevant to each person injured in a motorcycle accident were investigated via forms. Data were analyzed using frequencies, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests on the SPSS v16.0 program. RESULTS: Ninety-one people involved in accidents, with a mean age of 28.47 years, were studied. The average healthcare expenditure for the 91 patients studied between reception and discharge was US$253.02 (median, US$55.90; range, US$11.52 – 7137.19). According to our study, there was no definitive correlation between the healthcare costs and the time of the accident, motorcycle type, nature of the road surface, protective equipment, weather, or daylight. CONCLUSION: According to the current study, the risk of an accident increases with young adults. Concordantly, healthcare costs increase. Thus, it is important that the legal rules with respect to the age and education necessary for receiving a license to operate a motorcycle should be redefined, and if necessary, regulated. Key words: Emergency department, healthcare costs, motorcycle

Effects of Size on Collision Perception and Implications for Perceptual Theory and Transportation Safety. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2013.
People avoid collisions when they walk or drive, and they create collisions when they hit balls or tackle opponents. To do so, people rely on the perception of depth (perception of objects’ locations) and time-to-collision (perception of when a collision will occur), which are supported by different information sources. Depth cues, such as relative size, provide heuristics for relative depth, whereas optical invariants, such as tau, provide reliable time-to-collision information. One would expect people to rely on invariants rather than depth cues, but the size-arrival effect shows the contrary: People reported that a large far approaching object would hit them sooner than a small near object that would have hit first. This effect of size on collision perception violates theories of time-to-collision perception based solely on the invariant tau and suggests that perception is based on multiple information sources, including heuristics. The size-arrival effect potentially can lead drivers to misjudge when a vehicle would arrive at an intersection and is considered a contributing factor in motorcycle accidents. In this article, I review research on the size-arrival effect and its theoretical and practical implications.

The Computational Multi-Body Dynamics for Motorcycle on its Oscillation Properties, Applied Mechanics and Materials (Volumes 373 – 375), 2013.
Based on 3D digital model of motorcycle constructed in UGNX, motorcycle multi-body model was established for dynamic behavior analysis under inbuilt assembling of coefficient matrix of dynamical equation in computation code of ADAMS. Through the comparison of simulation analysis for dynamics of different models in accelerations in time and frequency domains, it is concluded that realistic multi-body model better represents the dynamic behavior of motorcycle while simplified one with less physical parameters only provides qualitative analysis for the dynamic behavior. The simulation results shows that model IV with accurate parameters of components influences the dynamic response of frame, simplified models could not represent the influence of mass and inertia moment of subsystems on dynamic behavior, which means advanced motorcycle multi-body improves simulation effectiveness and approximates the dynamic behavior of motorcycle well so that the simulation developed to replace experiments in bad working conditions will promote the advancement of engineering.

The Motorcycle Usage Characteristicsin Developing Countries: The Operation Cost and Ownership of Motorcycles in Makassar -Indonesia. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol.9, 2013.
The present paper aims to grasp motorcycle usage characteristics in developing countries, particularly the motorcycle operation cost and ownership in Makassar, Indonesia. The study has conducted secondary and primary surveys in data collection for both characteristics respectively, from motorcyclist and households in the city. Then, we have analyzed some regression models for the motorcycle operation cost models. As well as, we have applied the multinomial logit model approach to analyze the relationship between the motorcycle ownership and some household characteristics. The analysis results show that the motorcycle operation cost components such fuel consumption, administration, maintenance, and oil utilization costs follow the polynomial models with significant results. In addition, the goodness of fit of the motorcycle ownership model is enough acceptable. Mostly exogenous variables significantly influence the motorcycle ownership. The results provide a basis for further studies such time valuation of motorcyclists, mode choice model of the households, etc.

Commercial Motorcycle Activity, Value Creation and the Environment in the Developing World: The Case of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Social Science Research, 2013.
This study used a combination of survey techniques to examine the implications of the activity of commercial cyclists, popularly known as ‘Achaba’ (Hausa: motorized rickshaw) in Nasarawa state for the local economy, community and environment. The findings of the study show that apart from being a money spinner, this public transport mode has been making other modest contribution to the state’s economy. The study also shows that this transport is a latent contributor to environmental degradation in the state for it might have degraded the environment in excess of $6.98 million between 2006 and 2008. In addition, it is becoming a major source of road traffic morbidity and mortality. As policy measures, the study advocates for effective regulation of commercial motorcycle business in the state, imposition of appropriate environmental tax on users and operators and marshalling out a new transport policy with the aim of providing cheaper, efficient and environment-friendly urban mass transit

Does law enforcement awareness affect motorcycle helmet use? Evidence from urban cities in Thailand. Global Health Promotion, 2013.
Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists’ awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police’s checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.

Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand. International Journal for Equity in Health, 2013.
The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95%CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate(81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%;95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highestto-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers(HLR=28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95%CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by
more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r=0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference=36.2; 95%CI:0.79,71.60) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

Advances in the Modelling of Motorcycle Dynamics, Multibody System Dynamics 12: 251–283, 2004.
Starting from an existing advanced motorcycle dynamics model, which allows simulation of reasonably general motions and stability, modal and response computations for small perturbations from any trim condition, improvements are described. These concern (a) tyre/road contact geometry, (b) tyre shear force and moment descriptions, as functions of load, slip and camber, (c) tyre relaxation properties, (d) a new analytic treatment of the monoshock rear suspension mechanism with sample results, (e) parameter values describing a contemporary high performance machine and rider, (f) steady-state equilibrium and power checking and (g) steering control. In particular, the “Magic Formula” motorcycle tyre model is utilised and complete sets of parameter values for contemporary tyres are derived by identification methods. The new model is used for steady turning, stability, design parameter sensitivity and response to road forcing calculations. The results show the predictions of the model to be in general agreement with observations of motorcycle behaviour from the field and they suggest that frame flexibility remains an important design and analysis area, despite improvements in frame designs over recent years. Motorcycle rider parameters have significant influences on the behaviour, with results consistent with a commonly held

Casuística de accidentes de motocicleta y lesiones en los alumnos de la Escuela de Tráfico de la Guardia Civil.Sanidad Militar, 2013.
Objetivos: Conocer la causa de los accidentes de motocicleta y lesiones en los alumnos de la Escuela de Tráfico de la Guardia Civil, para establecer las medidas de protección y prevención más adecuadas. Material y métodos: La investigación se realiza sobre una muestra de 1.826 alumnos de Tráfico en la especialidad de Motorista, de ambos sexos, pertenecientes a nueve cursos, desde el 2009 al 2011. Para definir las lesiones se ha recurrido a la base de datos del Servicio de Sanidad del Centro, investigando un total de 277 Partes de Lesiones. Para conocer las causas, se analizan los Partes de Caída que se cumplimentan en las ambulancias. Resultados: Finalizan el Curso 1.437 alumnos, causando baja 389. El porcentaje de lesionados por año es de 15,11% en 2009, 15,45% en 2010 y 10,06% en 2011. El 2,3% de los que causan baja del Curso, corresponde a lesiones graves durante las clases de conducción. El 28% de los que causaron baja por falta de aptitud en la conducción, sufrieron algún tipo de lesión. Las zonas más afectadas son los miembros inferiores, superiores y tórax; en especial la pierna, tobillo, pie, rodilla y muñeca. Influyen en las causas de accidentes la edad, la climatología y el cansancio por el acumulo de horas de conducción. En cuanto al lugar donde se produce los accidentes, la pista número 5 «los peraltes» y la fase de campo (con motocicleta todo terreno), son más lesivas que la fase de carretera (con motocicleta de gran cilindrada); pero aquí, las lesiones son más graves. Hay instructores con un porcentaje de alumnos lesionados superior al del resto. Conclusiones: Existe una tendencia a una menor siniestralidad al disminuir el número de alumnos por Curso. Las contusiones, esguinces y fracturas son las lesiones más frecuentes y se localizaron principalmente en los miembros inferiores. Es preciso estudiar las causas del elevado número de accidentes en el obstáculo «los peraltes» y fase de campo. El instructor ejerce un papel primordial en la enseñanza del alumno y la prevención de los accidentes.

On-road and wind-tunnel measurement of motorcycle helmet noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Volume 134, Issue 3, (2013).
The noise source mechanisms involved in motorcycling include various aerodynamic sources and engine noise. The problem of noise source identification requires extensive data acquisition of a type and level that have not previously been applied. Data acquisition on track and on road are problematic due to rider safety constraints and the portability of appropriate instrumentation. One way to address this problem is the use of data from wind tunnel tests. The validity of these measurements for noise source identification must first be demonstrated. In order to achieve this extensive wind tunnel tests have been conducted and compared with the results from on-track measurements. Sound pressure levels as a function of speed were compared between on track and wind tunnel tests and were found to be comparable. Spectral conditioning techniques were applied to separate engine and wind tunnel noise from aerodynamic noise and showed that the aerodynamic components were equivalent in both cases. The spectral conditioning of on-track data showed that the contribution of engine noise to the overall noise is a function of speed and is more significant than had previously been thought. These procedures form a basis for accurate experimental measurements of motorcycle noise.

Modeling of Flywheel Hybrid Powertrain to Optimize Energy Consumption in Mechanical Hybrid Motorcycle. Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 393 (2013) pp 287-292, 2013.
Applied Mechanics and Materials 07/2013; 393(2013):287-292. DOI:10.4028/
ABSTRACT The creation of internal combustion engine is a significant milestone in power engineering world which simplified high mechanical energy demand jobs like moving vehicle and machinery. Even though the internal combustion engine gives lot of advantages, however, this type of engine is incapable to convert the heat energy from fuel combustion to the mechanical energy efficiently. Small capacity engine e.g. motorcycle engine having the power conversion efficiency between 25-30%. Therefore, alternative power source is required to support the internal combustion engine in order to increase the overall system efficiency. These phenomena give encouragement to implement the hybridization process. This is to increase the system efficiency in transferring power to the wheel. Hybridization processes e.g. flywheel as secondary power source can increase power transfer efficiency between 30%-80%. Hence, the purpose of this research is to develop the mathematical model of the power transfer efficiency of flywheel hybrid motorcycle by using back trace simulation method. This model will record the amount of energy use in acceleration phase of the driving cycle. Subsequently, the efficiency ratio of motorcycle power transfer is calculated and comparison of those ratios between the conventional motorcycle and the hybrid motorcycle is made. The outstanding results show that the hybrid motorcycle is capable to conserve the energy used up to 36% compare to the conventional motorcycle that wasted energy up to 200%. As a conclusion, flywheel as the secondary power source is capable to supply enough energy to propel the motorcycle forward.

Impact of legislation on motorcycle associated bone injuries caseload in a hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Agbo Hadiza Abigail, Igo Isaac, Envuladu Esther Anwazzi, and Zoakah Ayuba Ibrahim. Research WebPub, 2013.
This study was designed to assess the impact of state legislation on morbidity and mortality associated with commercial motorcyclists related Road Traffic Accident. It was a comparative cross sectional study design. Hospital records of commercial motorcycle related Road Traffic Accidents treated in the hospital six months prior to research period were recorded. Newly admitted cases of motorcycle related accidents within Jos and Bukuru metropolis six months after the period were also studied. About 107 patients attended the hospital between April to September 2012; 23 (21.5%) had motorcycle accidents while between November to April 2013 ninety patients were seen and 8 (8.9%) had motorcycle accidents with a statistically significant difference of p=0.000. In the six months prior to the legislation, 17 (73.9%) had lower limb injuries, 5 (21.7%) upper limb injuries while 1 (4.3%) had superficial bruises. While in the six months after the legislation, 5 (62.5%) and 3 (37.5%) had lower and upper limb injuries respectively. No mortality was recorded in all the patients studied.The enforcement of this law has impacted positively on health; it has reduced the prevalence of automobile related injuries.

A review on bicycle and motorcycle rider control with a perspective on handling qualities, J.D.G. Kooijman & A.L. Schwaba, Vehicle System Dynamics: International Journal of Vehicle Mechanics and Mobility, 2013.
This paper is a review study on handling and control of bicycles and motorcycles, the so-called single-track vehicles. The first part gives a brief overview on the modelling of the dynamics of single-track vehicles and the experimental validation. The second part focusses on a review of modelling and measuring human rider control. The third part deals with the concepts of handling and manoeuvrability and their experimental validation. Parallels are drawn with the literature on aircraft handling and pilot models. The paper concludes with the open ends and promising directions for future work in the field of handling and control of single-track vehicles.

Mechanical Variable Valve Actuation Systems for Motorcycle Engines. Carmelina Abagnale, Mariano Migliaccio, and Ottavio Pennacchia. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2013.
Abstract— This paper summarizes the results of design of new mechanical variable valve actuation (hereafter VVA) systems, developed for high performance motorcycle engines, at University of Napoli Federico II, Department of Industrial Engineering–Section Mechanics and Energy (hereafter DiME). In addition to a first simple (and limited) system used just as a model for the previous analysis, the work has evolved through three basic steps leading to three types of VVA systems, all mechanical systems (as defined in literature and described later). The study has been conducted implementing a numerical procedure specifically designed to determine cam profile and kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the whole system, starting from some data (as described in the paper). The model has been validated against the conventional timing system using kinematic simulations. Results of the numerical procedure verify the validity of the VVA systems and particularly a better performance of the last one, in spite of its higher complexity. Index Terms— Engine Valves, VVA, Variable Valve Actuation, Valve timing

Kinetostatic Benchmark of Rear Suspension Systems for Motorcycle. A. Noriega, D. A. Mántaras, D. Blanco. 2014. This paper provides a benchmark for motorcycle rear suspension systems. The main goal is to determine whether any of the suspension systems provides clear advantages over the others when seeking for a previously defined progressive wheel rate. A kinetostatic formulation of the mechanism is therefore presented. In this formulation, kinematics is based on groups of elements, while statics is based on the principle of virtual work. This formulation has been proved to be efficient and robust. It allows for building objective functions which are especially suitable for evolutionary algorithm optimization. Results show that there are no significant differences between the four types of analysed suspensions.

Nox Emission from Bi-Fuel Motorcycle. Zulkifli Abdul Majid, Rahmat Mohsin. International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2013. The growth in population plus the growth in energy consumption per person have combined together to give dramatic increase in both air and water pollution problems. The automotive vehicles have been a significant contributor to air pollution on total mass basis. Emission of oxides of nitrogen from combustion devices is a topic of tremendous current discussion. The appearance of several recent reviews and conferences focusing on NOX attest to the widespread interest in this pollutant. The clean air act has created intensified interest on NOX control because of their aggressive program to achieve ambient air quality standards for ozone. As a respond to this matter a group of a researcher from Gas Technology Centre (GASTEG), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia have been conducting a study on the use of natural gas as a fuel for motorcycle. The first stage of the study has succeeded in converting a fuel system of a motorcycle from petrol to a compressed natural gas (CNG). A series of test on exhaust emission have been conducted and the result shows that natural gas fuelled motorcycle give zero emission on NOX compared to 6ppm to 9ppm for petrol fuelled motorcycle at an engine speed of 0 to 425rpm.

Perfil de vítima de acidente motociclístico na emergência de um hospital universitário. José Luís Amim Zabeu, José Roberto Roland Zovico, Wilton Néri Pereira Júnior, Pedro Francisco Tucci Neto. Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia, 2013.

LOGIT MODEL OF MOTORCYCLE ACCIDENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES CONSIDERING PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS. Seva, Flores, Gotohio, Paras. International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering, 2013.
The study aims to determine significant personal and environmental variables in predicting motorcycle accidents in the Philippines, compare the results with findings in other countries, and propose possible government interventions. Data were gathered from 177 participants through the use of a survey in a licensing center in the largest city in Metro Manila. Logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of an accident from variables considered in the model. Three variables were found to be significant predictors of motorcycle accidents: age, driving behavior, and junction type. Younger drivers are more likely to be involved in accidents. The significance of age was unexpected because similar models found this to be insignificant. Driving behavior, specifically, committing violation predicts accident likelihood. Driving at t- and y-junctions also predicts motorcycle accidents. In the Philippines, a unique set of variables were found to predict motorcycle accidents. Although previous studies have established the effect of these variables to accident likelihood, the combination was unforeseen. Government agencies can focus on interventions directed at these three variables.

A STUDY ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE UNIQUE MOTORCYCLE PILOTS IN GOA. Cedric Silveira. Don Bosco College’s Inter Disciplinary Journal 2012-2013, 2013.

DEVELOPMENT OF SERVICE PERFORMANCE MODEL FOR EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES. Science International. Seyed Farzin Faezi, Hussain Hamid, Hamed Khani Sanij, 2013.

Design and performance of a power train for mild-hybrid motorcycle prototype. Electric Machines & Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International. Morandin, Mattia; Ferrari, Marco; and Bolognani, Silverio.

Development of a safety performance function for motorcycle accident fatalities on Malaysian primary roads. Safety Science, Volume 60, December 2013, Pages 13–20, Muhammad Marizwan Abdul Manan, Thomas Jonsson, András Várhelyi.

Evaluation of Motorcycle Safety Strategies Using the Severity of Injuries. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Available online 29 June 2013. Soyoung Jung, Xiao Qin, Yoonjin Yoon.

Choice of motorcycle helmet makes a difference: A prospective observational study. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jul;75(1):88-91. Brewer BL, Diehl AH 3rd, Johnson LS, Salomone JP, Wilson KL, Atallah HY, Feliciano DV, Rozycki GS.

Examination of factors determining fault in two-vehicle motorcycle crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 45, March 2012, Pages 669–676. William H. Schneider IV, Peter T. Savolainen, Dan Van Boxel, Rick Beverley.

Issues in motorcycle sensory and cognitive conspicuity: The impact of motorcycle low-beam headlights and riding experience on drivers’ decisions to turn across the path of a motorcycle Original Research Article Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 49, November 2012, Pages 86-95 Eve Mitsopoulos-Rubens, Michael G. Lenné

Are car drivers holding a motorcycle licence less responsible for motorcycle—Car crash occurrence?: A non-parametric approach Original Research Article Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 38, Issue 2, March 2006, Pages 365-370 Domenico Magazzù, Mario Comelli, Alessandra Marinoni

Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models Original Research Article Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 49, November 2012, Pages 124-132 Türker Özkan, Timo Lajunen, Burak Doğruyol, Zümrüt Yıldırım, Ahmet Çoymak

Motorcycle right-of-way accidents—A literature review Original Research Article Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 43, Issue 3, May 2011, Pages 971-982 Chih-Wei Pai

Motorcycle helmets—A state of the art review Original Research Article Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 56, July 2013, Pages 1-21 F.A.O. Fernandes, R.J. Alves de Sousa

Cellular automaton model for mixed traffic flow with motorcycles Original Research Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 380, 1 July 2007, Pages 470-480 Jian-ping Meng, Shi-qiang Dai, Li-yun Dong, Jie-fang Zhang

Cellular automaton simulations for mixed traffic with erratic motorcycles’ behaviours Original Research Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 389, Issue 10, 15 May 2010, Pages 2077-2089 Lawrence W. Lan, Yu-Chiun Chiou, Zih-Shin Lin, Chih-Cheng Hsu

A motorcycle multi-body model for real time simulations based on the natural coordinates approach V Cossalter, R Lot – Vehicle System Dynamics, 2002 – Taylor & Francis

A review of urban transportation network design problems European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 229, Issue 2, 1 September 2013, Pages 281–302, Reza Zanjirani Farahani, Elnaz Miandoabchi, W.Y. Szeto, Hannaneh Rashidi


A Timeline of the Hells Angels, The New York Times, 2013.
The Hells Angels motorcycle club emerged after World War II and grew into a collection of both bike enthusiasts and American outlaws whose tales are as grounded in legend as in fact. In less than 70 years, they have become a part of counterculture lore — American antiheroes exported to the rest of the world with dubious effect. As the group states on its website, “When we do right, nobody remembers. When we do wrong, nobody forgets.”



Developing Test Methods for the Evaluation of Scooter Performance in Winter Conditions. Master of Applied Science in Biomedical Engineering Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering University of Toronto, 2013.
Electric mobility scooters are increasing in popularity and are used extensively by individuals with mobility impairments to conduct activities of daily living. Scientific literature on the safety and efficacy of scooters in winter conditions is sparse and the current technical standards for scooters do not mandate testing in these conditions. This study paves the way for more rigorous standard testing by: 1) Describing a novel, motion-capture based method to quantify the tractive performance of scooters; 2) Describing methods to create a wide variety of simulated winter conditions; 3) Presenting pilot-test results of a scooter driven in these winter conditions. The outcomes of this study are significant because it is the first study to evaluate the performance of a scooter in winter conditions. Furthermore, it constitutes the first phase of a broader initiative to develop a rigorous, new winter test method for scooters and drive improvements in safety, performance and design.

Estudo de Modelos de Predições em um Sistema de Compartilhamento de Bicicletas Público. Dissertação de mestrado profissional, UFPE, 2013.

The Owners of the Map: motorcycle taxi drivers, mobility, and politics in Bangkok, Harvard, 2013.
This dissertation offers an ethnography of motorcycle taxi drivers: Bangkok’s most important and informal network of everyday mobility. Drawing on over eight years of experience in the region, six months of archival research, and 24 months of fieldwork, I analyze how the drivers, mostly male rural migrants, negotiate their presence in the city through spatial expertise, bodily practices, and social relations. Their physical mobility through traffic, I argue, shapes their ability to find unexplored routes in the social, economic, and political landscapes of the city and to create paths for action where other urban dwellers see a traffic jam or a political gridlock. My narrative builds up to the role of these drivers in the Red Shirt protests that culminated in May 2010 and analyzes how their practices as transportation and delivery providers shape their role in political uprisings and urban guerilla confrontations. My main finding is that when the everyday life of the city breaks down the drivers take advantage of their position in urban circuits of exchange to emerge as central political actors in contemporary Bangkok by blocking, slowing down, or filtering the circulation of people, goods, and information which they normally facilitate. Owners of the Map proposes an alternative view of contemporary urbanism in which the city is constructed day after day through the work of connection and mediation, its frictions and failures, the tactics adopted to resist them, as well as the political tensions that emerge from these struggles.

Nonlinear Stochastic Analysis of Motorcycle Dynamics. Rice University Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, 2013.
Off-road and racing motorcycles require a particular setup of the suspension to improve the comfort and the safety of the rider. Further, due to ground unevenness, off-road motorcycle suspensions usually experience extreme and erratic excursions in performing their function. In this regard, the adoption of nonlinear devices, such as progressive springs and hydro pneumatic shock absorbers, can help limiting both the acceleration experienced by the sprung mass and the excursions of the suspensions. For dynamic analysis purposes, this option involves the solution of the nonlinear differential equations that govern the motion of the motorcycle, which is excited by the stochastic road ground profile. In this study a 4 degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) nonlinear motorcycle model is considered. The model involves suspension elements with asymmetric behaviour. Further, it is assumed that the motorcycle is exposed to loading of a stochastic nature as it moves with a specified speed over a road profile defined by a particular power spectrum. It is shown that a meaningful analysis of the motorcycle response can be conducted by using the technique of statistical linearization. The validity of the proposed approach is established by comparison with results from pertinent Monte Carlo studies. In this context the applicability of auto-regressive (AR) filters for efficient implementation of the Monte Carlo simulation is pointed out. The advantages of these methods for the synthesis of excitation signals from a given power spectrum, are shown by comparison with other methods. It is shown that the statistical linearization method allows the analysis of multi-degree-of-freedom (M-DOF) systems that present strong nonlinearities, exceeding other nonlinear analysis methods in both accuracy and applicability. It is expected that the proposed approaches, can be used for a variety of parameter/ride quality studies and as preliminary design tool by the motorcycle industry.



The economic rise of China and the transformation of Vietnam’s motorcycle industry. – Mai Fujita

Estratégias na indústria de motocicletas: um estudo exploratório do setor de motocicletas brasileiro. – Daniel Marin

A logistica da precarização : terceirização do trabalho na Honda do Brasil. – Paula Regina Pereira Marcelino.



Coletivo de Trabalho e Atividades de ‘Motoboys’ – Thiago Drumond Moraes


La incidencia del flujo masivo de motocicletas en el tráfico vehicular de ciudades de países en desarrollo es actualmente un tema de discusión a nivel mundial y un fenómeno que está afectando las condiciones de movilidad en muchas ciudades de países desarrollados. Esta investigación tiene el propósito de plantear una metodología novedosa para simular el efecto de las motocicletas en la movilidad de la Avenida Pedro de Heredia de la ciudad Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). Para ello, se analizó la incidencia de las motocicletas en la movilidad en los sectores la castellana e India Catalina. Mediante la aplicación del software de micro simulación PTV VISSIM 5.3 y un análisis comparativo entre condiciones normales de tráfico y con restricción en la circulación de motocicletas, se pretendió establecer la cantidad de vehículos que son desplazados en el flujo vehicular por el comportamiento errático de las motocicletas en el contexto de las condiciones viales de la ciudad. Los resultados muestran que es posible establecer un modelo que refleje virtualmente la incidencia de las motocicletas en la movilidad dentro del flujo de tráfico mixto presente en la ciudad.

En este trabajo se pretende analizar un casco de motocicleta que es utilizado como protección al momento de pilotear un vehículo de dos ruedas. Se inició este estudio con una validación experimental en el túnel de viento, a unas velocidades de 5, 10,15, 20, 32 m/s; y visualización de flujo con la ayuda de humo y luz roja determinado el punto de desprendimiento de flujo además del comportamiento de las velocidades a lo largo del casco. Posteriormente se realizó un análisis en CFD usando un modelo CAD del casco a las mismas condiciones del túnel de viento, determinado cuantitativamente el comportamiento de las velocidades a la largo del mismo. Por otra parte se procede en realizar cambios geométricos en 2D que consisten en la disminución de cambios bruscos de sección y redondeos en la parte frontal del casco. Además la adición de colas de 200, 180, 150 y 100 mm de alturas respectivamente las cuales ayudan a disminuir la zona de baja presión presente en la parte trasera del casco, esto se realiza con el fin de hallar el contorno con mejores características aerodinámicas para un posterior modelado en 3D de un caso de motocicleta con menor arrastre. Estas pruebas de CFD se realizaron a diferentes números de Reynolds y a condiciones atmosféricas estándar.

Risco de Acidentes em Condutores de Motocicleta que Trabalham no Transporte de Passageiros no Município de Campina Grande. TCC, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 2013.

Diseño y fabricación de un chasis de una motocicleta de 125cc 2T para la I competición internacional
. Universidade Politécnica de Cargatena, 2013.
El presente proyecto tiene como objeto, el diseño y fabricación de un chasis de una motocicleta para la competición MotoStudent. El proyecto incluirá: • Elaboración de la fase de prediseño con programa de modelado sólido en 3D. • Selección de alternativas para la obtención del prototipo final. • Cálculo, análisis y dimensionamiento de los elementos estructurales de la motocicleta. • Elaboración de planos finales en 2D y selección de componentes normalizados y comerciales, que hagan viable la fabricación del prototipo. • Realización de presupuesto de los costes de material y mano de obra. El proyecto incluye todos los planos necesarios para su fabricación, los cálculos justificativos, el análisis ante las solicitaciones críticas de los elementos diseñados, así como la justificación de todos aquellos componentes comerciales seleccionados. No solo se trata de hacer el mejor diseño posible, hay que tener en cuenta que los medios tanto económicos como técnicos están muy limitados, por lo que el diseño debe ceñirse a ellos, lo que se diseñe tiene que poder fabricarse.

Al ser la contaminación de los automotores muy alta en nuestra ciudad, nace la idea de convertir una motocicleta a gasolina en eléctrica, la cual mejoraría la calidad del medio ambiente, sin contaminación, sin ruido y con bajo costo de operación. Se selecciona un prototipo, el más contaminante y más empleado en la ciudad de Quito, la Motocicleta Suzuki Ax100 que tiene un motor de 2 tiempos. Mediante un análisis mecánico se determina la capacidad del motor eléctrico a utilizar, se seleccionan partes y componentes necesarios para la conversión, diseñando nuevas partes y piezas que servirán para soportar el nuevo sistema con el cual trabajará la motocicleta. Se determina el correcto funcionamiento de la suspensión de la motocicleta mediante un análisis de vibraciones utilizado software matemático y simuladores. Se realiza un análisis térmico con el cual se determinan las pérdidas por calor generadas por el motor, las cuales se deben disipar con intercambiador de calor. Al realizar pruebas de funcionamiento se obtiene un gran desempeño y autonomía, tanto en cuidad como carretera, siendo la motocicleta eléctrica un éxito.

Pre-diseño, cálculo y evolución del chasis de una motocicleta de competición – Raúl Dorado García

Eficiencia y transformación energética: modificación de una motocicleta de combustión interna a energía eléctrica. UNIVERSIDAD SAN FRANCISCO DE QUITO, 2013.
In our days a global trend has appeared, the search of more efficient, more autonomous vehicles with less emissions, approaching zero. In the last few years, electric vehicles have appeared as a great solutions to the low emission and great autonomy as the more important demands of the costumers and companies worldwide have develop their own prototypes. The propose of this final project is to successfully adapt an electric motor into a gas motorcycle with an Otto cycle engine, the goal of the engine change is to analyze the energy efficiency and autonomy of a fully functional prototype electric vehicle. As a part of the modification process many factors have to been studied, for example engine power, voltage, and consumption in order to develop a recharge system that is able to increase the autonomy of the vehicle without increasing the emissions. As final part of the project, a series of test with the electric engine will take place in order to collect enough data to make a comparison which will reveal if electric vehicles actually have a better autonomy and electric efficiency than a gasoline propelled engine and how feasible is the building of a fully autonomous electric vehicle without emissions.


MOTOBOY – Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho: Prevenção de acidentes no trânsito (Fundacentro)

Environmental Benefits from Driving Electric Vehicles?

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels – National Research Council

Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles – National Research Council

Transporte urbano: o papel do BNDES no apoio à solução dos principais gargalos de mobilidade

Safety implications of lane-splitting among California motorcyclists
involved in collisions

Motorcycle Lane-splitting and Safety in California

O Uso das Bicicletas no Brasil: Qual o Melhor Modelo de Incentivo? – Rosenberg Associados

canal*MOTOBOY in – Toni Abadi

[NHTSA] Motorcycle Safety 2007

[NHTSA] Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications: Readiness of V2V Technology for Application

Understanding the emerging role of motorcycles in African cities

Bicycle-friendly cities: The relevance of urban form and infrastructure. Project Report. VTI, Sweden, 2013.
This report presents the results of a study with the overall aim of analysing the extent to which urban form and the design of the transport system can explain the level of cycling. The analysis is based on published studies of the relationship between cycling and various properties of the physical urban environment. A statistical meta-analysis, of aggregated variables, was carried out based on data extraction from relevant published studies as well as an analysis of the conclusions drawn in a number of review articles. The report concludes with an analysis of what options and grounds exist to provide planners with guidelines to encourage cycling in urban areas. The analysis showed that all aggregate variables that were included in the statistical meta-analysis had a significant impact on bicycle use. The main contribution of this work is in providing a quantitative measure of their effects. Distance was the most important factor associated with levels of bicycle use and the association was negative (r = -0.61 to -0.40), as would be expected. The other variables included in the analysis were positively associated with bicycle use. Land use, which was operationalised as measures of density and accessibility, was the second most important variable (r = +0.03 to +0.47). Other variables in the analysis included the transport system (r = +0.11 to +0.29), the urban environment (r = 0.12 to 0.27), and safety (r = 0.08 to 0.21). The transport system variable was represented by measures of the street and bicycle network density, and the presence and quality of infrastructure for cycling. The urban environment covered various properties such as type of housing and neighborhood, but also aesthetic qualities and attractiveness, and safety included both safety and security. The findings agreed well with the results from the analysis of conclusions in published reviews addressing these issues. In practical planning, the relative importance of the identified variables, and factors included, need to be evaluated in each specific case, since current conditions have a large influence on what effect can be expected from different measures. Deficits in one area can not be compensated with measures in another. Instead, comprehensive programs and interventions in urban and transport planning are highly important to motivate increased bicycle use. Such an approach, however, requires a common understanding and expectations of city and traffic development in policy and planning, involving both citizens and other stakeholders.

Promoting Healthy Living in Latin America and the Caribbean – Governance of Multisectoral Activities to Prevent Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases. DIRECTIONS IN DEVELOPMENT – THE WORLD BANK, 2014.

Motorcycle Safety. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2007.
This booklet points out the risks involved in motorcycling. It provides safety tips and discusses protective clothing, defensive driving, inspection and maintenance, and proper reaction to hazardous conditions – all of which have a major impact on motorcycle safety on our streets and highways.

Mapa da Violência 2013 – Acidentes de Trânsito e Motocicletas

Risco no Trânsito, Omissão e Calamidade: Impactos do Incentivo à Motocicleta no Brasil, Eduardo A. Vasconcelos, 2013.

Beginning in the 1990’s federal policies incentivated the production, sale and use of motorcycles in Brazil. The motorcycle fleet increased from 1.5 millon in 1990 to 17 million in 2012. However, the process had a tragic outcome. The official number of motorcyclist fatalities increased from 725 in 1996 to 11,433 in 2011. Between 2000 and 2012 the national traffic safety insurance system paid compensations to 177,000 motorcyclist fatalities and to 781,000 motorcycle users that faced permanent disabilities, totalling 958,000 people. This high cost counterbalanced all the benefits brought by the introduction of the 1997 National
Traffic Code and placed Brazil again in the group of countries with very high rates of traffic accident death and serious injury. The role of public policies in support of motorcycle use was analised, along with the role of the motorcycle industry and of local traffic administrations. The study concluded that the unfortunate process came out of a mix of political populism (motorcycle advertised as “freedom for the poor” and sign of “economic development”), greed and irresponsibility by the motorcycle industry (that limited the discussion to the false assumption that “we deliver a safe vehicle”), the low level of consciousness of Brazilian young people about the actual risks involved and the lack of proper road safety awareness for all road users about the risks related to the entrance of a new vehicle in the traffic environment. Several unsuccessful attempts to solve the problem were implemented by traffic authorities and fatalites show no sign of decreasing.

The traffic noise is one of the most important factors influencing the reduction of comfort life and also it can cause the increase the possibility to loss health by people. The sports motorcycle are the types of vehicles which exploitation is connected with generating noise of a higher level. In the work, the tests of influence of using different solutions of the muffler type of the exhaust system construction on the level of noise emission by the sports motorcycle are presented. KEYWORDS: Traffic noise, sports motorcycle, exhaust system

Noisy Motorcycles—An Environmental Quality-of-Life Issue. The National Academy of Engineering, 2013
To address issues and concerns raised during the roundtable discussions, the editing team developed the recommendations below. They are considered to be of considerable importance to improve control of motorcycle noise in the United States. Taken together, the recommendations aim to make clear that the noise emission requirements are in place for the life of the motorcycle, that the manufacturer has a responsibility to build a vehicle from quality materials that will last a reasonable period of time, and that the responsibility for meeting the requirements when the AAP expires rests with the owner and not the manufacturer. To determine whether or not the motorcycle emits excessive levels of noise when it is on the road, law enforcement needs a court-acceptable stationary test of noise levels that is recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and not preempted. The recommendations below are organized to follow the logic of the chapters.

Harley-Davidson, Inc. Research Report, 2013.
On August 19, 2013, Harley-Davidson, Inc. (Harley-Davidson) announced its first-ever global marketing campaign – created under the “United by Independents” banner -for a revolutionary line of new 2014 motorcycles. The company stated that the star of the show is not a single bike, but rather eight new bikes under the banner Project Rushmore. According to the Harley-Davidson, Project Rushmore used rider insights that was collected by the brand during thousands of rides and personal interactions with customers in order to deliver never-before-seen motorcycling enhancements, such as the first original-equipment voice recognition and touch screen for music, GPS navigation and on-motorcycle phone, while the fitting soundtrack for this fan-inspired effort is a gutsy, modern re-imagination of The Beatles’ iconic hit, “Come Together.” Mark-Hans Richer, Harley-Davidson Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer said, “Our new products and media partnerships are writing the new history of Harley-Davidson, and we’re always open to what’s next. But no matter what, 100 years from now our customers will still lead us.”The Full Research Report on Harley-Davidson, Inc. – including full detailed breakdown, analyst ratings and price targets – is available to download free of charge at: []

Polaris Industries, Inc. Research Report, 2013.
On August 19, 2013, Polaris Industries, Inc. (Polaris) announced the appointment of Tim Larson to the newly created position of Vice President, Global Customer Excellence, with immediate effect. According to Polaris, leading companies must stay ahead of customers’ rapidly changing expectations, and for Polaris, this meant delivering excellence at each customer touch point, across its current global dealer network, business units, channels and technology, as well as evaluate strategic expansion of distribution channels and customer base. To address this need, the Company has created the new leadership position directly accountable for those intersections to deliver a truly differentiated customer experience. Prior to this new role, Larson served as President and CEO at Jostens, Inc. The Full Research Report on Polaris Industries, Inc. – including full detailed breakdown, analyst ratings and price targets – is available to download free of charge at: []

To explore the negotiation between designers and users through Motorcycle Refit in Taiwan. Yu-Hsiang Lan and Ju-Joan Wong, Design, Chiba University, 2013.
Taiwan has the highest motorcycle density in the world, and that is the reason why we can see not only the original motorcycles but also the ones with varied refit pass through streets. This street subculture changed the role of motorcycles in society, influenced the social rules and raised different views about designers’ presumption.This study aims to discuss the following two questions in light of the phenomenon of motorcycle refit which is likely to be banned. First, why motorcycle refit was prevailing in Taiwan after 1980s? And second, why would people want to refit their motorcycles? What is their purpose and motive? By examining the historical documents and interviewing people who enjoy refitting motorcycles, we may probe into the complicated interdependence between the designers and users of motorcycle beyond the trend of motorcycle refit.The existence and development of refitted motorcycles can be understood better if we integrate designer’s script, the de-scription of people who refit their motorcycles and the social viewpoints with Actor-Network Theory (ANT). It is observed that the original motorcycle insufficiency, environmental restrictions and the user’s agency have given rise to motorcycle refit. A reinterpretation based on the background and meaning of motorcycle refit, if possible, helps us to examine the operation process of design from the user’s viewpoint.

I DIM – Desafio Intermodal Recife de 2012, Observatório do Recife, 2013.

An environmental assessment of the bicycle and other transport systems. Mirjan E. Bouwman, Lecturer, University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, The Netherlands, 2000.
The bicycle is often referred to as an ideal transport system from an environmental point of view. However, it could be stated that walking is even more favourable, as the energy use and emissions associated with the production and maintenance of bicycles are absent for transport on foot. In order to make a comparison between the bicycle and other transport systems from an environmental point of view, four different characteristics of transport systems are taken into account: space use, energy use, travel time and costs. With the aid of a computer model the current best transport system in the Netherlands can be determined, based on the score of various transport systems on each of the characteristics. Four scenarios (placed along an economic growth axis and a sustainable development axis) are used in order to perform the same analysis for 2025. None of the transport systems taken into account shows favourable scores on each of the four characteristics. The analysis points out that the bicycle best supports both individual and societal interest on short distances, while the train (in combination with the bicycle) is the most interesting system for longer trips.

Life Cycle Assessment of Transportation Options for Commuters. Shreya Dave, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 2010.
In order to compare modes of transportation in terms of their environmental impact, a complete life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted. Using Carnegie-Mellon¶s EIO-LCA methodology the manufacturing, assembly, operation, and infrastructure life stages were considered for energy input required. Building upon available research for the impact of vehicle and public transportation, the impact of these phases was calculated for walking, bicycling, and electric-bicycling. Electric bicycles use less than 10% of the energy required to power a sedan for each mile traveled and emit 90% fewer pollutants per passengermile-traveled than a bus operating off peak. Both habits and financial motivators impact the efficiency at which a form of transportation operates. For example, due to the amount of time a public bus runs offpeak, its average emissions per passenger-mile-traveled is greater than the emissions of a Boeing 737 per passenger-mile-traveled. These relationships and factors are explored in the concluding section.

Causas de Acidentes com Motocicletas. Medicina USP, 2013.
Foi um estudo transversal e prospectivo que coletou dados sobre os acidentes envolvendo motociclistas. Os dados foram coletados no hospital a partir de entrevistas com as vítimas atendidas e no local do acidente sobre as condições do local, da via e dos veículos envolvidos por equipes de plantão designadas para a realização da coleta. As coletas de dados foram realizadas no período compreendido de 19/02/2013 a 12/05/2013, em regime de plantões de 24 horas. Coleta hospitalar: Realizada na UE Dr. Caetano Virgílio Neto, PSM Professor João Catarin Mezomo, HU-USP e HCFMUSP. Coleta local do acidente: Acidentes ocorridos na Zona Oeste (referência regional da Saúde) notificado pela Central de Operações do Corpo de Bombeiros (COBOM) à Coordenação da Equipe de Coleta de plantão, à Central da CET ou perito de plantão.

China : Road Traffic Safety, the Achievements, the Challenges, and the Way Ahead.. World Bank. 2008.

Global Motorcycle Helmets Industry.

STRENGTHENING ROAD SAFETY LEGISLATION: A practice and resource manual for countries. World Health Organization

Forbes – The World’s Biggest Public Companies

Effects of Antilock Braking Systems on Motorcycle Fatal Crash Rates: An Update. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

Evaluation of motorcycle antilock braking systems, alone and in conjunction with combined control braking systems.. Highway Loss Data Institute.

Honda Annual Report 2012

Honda Annual Report 2013

BMW Annual Report 2012

Harley-Davidson Annual Report 2012

Piaggio Annual Report 2012

Bajaj Annual Report 2012

Hero Annual Report 2012-2013

Yamaha Annual Report 2012

Suzuki Annual Report 2012

O Mapeamento das mortes no trânsito – Confederação Nacional dos Municípios.

Tecnologias a favor da Mobilidade Urbana – Confederação Nacional dos Municípios.

Fatalidade em duas rodas no período 2000 a 2011 – Seguradora Líder – DPVAT

Global and China Motorcycle Industry 2013

Honda in Brazil and Mexico – Starting with Production of Motorcycles and Moving to Automobile Production (in Hybrid Factories in Latin America: Japanese Management Transferred). Tetsuo Abo, 2013.

NHTSA – Prioritized Recommendations Of the National Agenda for Motorcycle SafetyFinal 2013

Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures – H.H. Hurt Jr, J.V. Ouellet and D.R. Thom

MAIDS – In-Depth Investigations of Accidents Involving Powered Two Wheelers

Comparative analysis of MAIDS and OTS data

In Depth Study of Motorcycle Accidents – David D. Clarke, Pat Ward, Craig Bartle and Wendy Truman

Anuário da Indústria Brasileira de Motociclos 2014 – Abraciclo

Anuário da Indústria Brasileira de Motociclos 2013 – Abraciclo

Anuário da Indústria Brasileira de Motociclos 2012 – Abraciclo

Violência: Explosão de Motos e Mortes – Revista “Em Discussão!”. Ano 3 n. 13 nov. 2012 – Senado Federal


International Journal of Motorcycle Studies


Organização Mundial da Saúde
Ministério da Saúde
Inmetro (motocicleta)
ACEM (Europe)
JAMA (Japan)
CAAM (China)
FAMI (Asia) 
HONDA Worldwide
Indonesian Motorcycle Industry Association
SIAM India – Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM)
PAMA (Pakistan)
Science Direct
Periodicos Capes (periódicos: motorcycle)
WHO (Injuries, Traffic)
Hurt Report
Banco de Teses
Google Scholar (motorcycle)
Google Patents (motorcycle)
Connectd Vehicles – V2V
Câmara dos Deputados
Car to Car
Safety Pilot
For Car Drives – MSF


Traffic Simulation Software Programs
Lane Splitting
Motorcycle Taxi
Mat Rempit